Textos bíblicos em hebraico e grego disponíveis online

Jonathan Robker publicou em The Digital Orientalist, no dia 9 de outubro de 2020, uma lista comentada de fontes primárias confiáveis e disponíveis gratuitamente para estudos bíblicos.

Trustworthy, Freely Available Primary Sources for Biblical Studies

Ele diz no começo do post que

(…) A maioria dos estudiosos envolvidos com os estudos bíblicos provavelmente estará familiarizada com algum tipo de software para trabalhar com as fontes primárias, ou seja, edições críticas de textos bíblicos. Provavelmente, os mais conhecidos deles são Accordance, BibleWorks e Logos. Esses programas têm grandes méritos, mas também algumas deficiências e obstáculos. Por exemplo, BibleWorks infelizmente fechou as portas (…) Todos esses programas têm curvas de aprendizado bastante acentuadas (…) Mas, provavelmente, o maior obstáculo para muitos usuários (…) é o custo. As licenças para os módulos relevantes começam em centenas de dólares, aumentando ad infinitum dependendo dos módulos adicionados e expansões. Com isso em mente, é bom conhecer algumas alternativas online disponíveis gratuitamente. Com um texto, tão usado e abusado, como a Bíblia, há também a questão da confiabilidade: a fonte é confiável e pode ser acessada sem problema? (…) Vamos considerar algumas opções para acessar e avaliar as fontes bíblicas primárias…

Jonathan Robker, editor para estudos bíblicos de The Digital Orientalist, comenta os seguintes recursos:

Sociedade Bíblica Alemã



STEP Bible

Por que ler a Bíblia nas línguas originais?

MURAOKA, T. Why Read the Bible in the Original Languages? Leuven: Peeters, 2020, 111 p. – ISBN 9789042942004.

Uma comparação de várias traduções da Bíblia em qualquer idioma mostra que elas diferem em centenas de passagens, apontando para a discordância contínua entreMURAOKA, T. Why Read the Bible in the Original Languages?. Leuven: Peeters, 2020 estudiosos e tradutores da Bíblia em sua análise e compreensão dessas passagens. Aprender hebraico, aramaico e grego, as línguas originais da Bíblia, não é algo que agrada a todos. Além do que, o conhecimento destas línguas não fornece necessariamente uma solução para essas dificuldades. No entanto, há muitas coisas no texto bíblico que podem ser perdidas se o texto for lido apenas em tradução.

Neste livro, uma série de questões linguísticas relacionadas com as três línguas originais são discutidas à luz de exemplos reais. Questões de cultura e retórica também são abordadas. Um capítulo especial é dedicado à Septuaginta como uma ponte entre os dois Testamentos. O livro foi escrito em um estilo não técnico, portanto, facilmente legível por não especialistas, mas os especialistas também podem encontrar coisas de seu interesse. Nenhum alfabeto hebraico ou grego é usado.

A comparison of multiple translations of the Bible in any language shows that they differ at hundreds of places, pointing to the continuing disagreement among Bible scholars and translators in their analysis and understanding of those places. To learn Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, the original languages of the Bible, is admittedly not everybody’s cup of tea. Knowledge of them does not necessarily provide a solution to these difficulties. However, there are not a few things in the biblical text which can be missed out if it is read only in translation. A range of linguistic issues touching on the three original languages are discussed in the light of actual examples. Matters of culture and rhetoric are also taken up. A special chapter is devoted to the Septuagint as a bridge between the two Testaments. The book is written in a non-technical style, hence easily readable by non-specialists, but specialists may also find things of interest. No Hebrew or Greek alphabet is used.

Quem é Takamitsu Muraoka?

Página do autor na Amazon.

A saga do fragmento do evangelho de Marcos

Um longo artigo sobre o caso do fragmento do evangelho de Marcos, que causou furor entre os estudiosos da área porque andaram dizendo que era do século I. Na verdade foi escrito entre 150 e 250 d.C.

Para entender o caso, leia antes o post Ainda sobre o fragmento de Marcos, publicado em 02/07/2019.


Um escândalo em Oxford: o curioso caso do evangelho roubado

A scandal in Oxford: the curious case of the stolen gospel – Charlotte Higgins: The Guardian – Thu 9 Jan 2020

What links an eccentric Oxford classics don, billionaire US evangelicals, and a tiny, missing fragment of an ancient manuscript? Charlotte Higgins unravels a multimillion-dollar riddle

To visit Dr Dirk Obbink at Christ Church college, Oxford, you must first be ushered by a bowler-hatted porter into the stately Tom Quad, built by Cardinal Wolsey before his spectacular downfall in 1529. Turn sharp right, climb a flight of stairs, and there, behind a door on which is pinned a notice advertising a 2007 college arts festival, you will find Obbink’s rooms. Be warned: you may knock on the door in vain. Since October, he has been suspended from duties following the biggest scandal that has ever hit, and is ever likely to hit, the University of Oxford’s classics department.

An associate professor in papyrology and Greek literature at Oxford, Obbink occupies one of the plum jobs in his field. Born in Nebraska and now in his early 60s, this lugubrious, crumpled, owlish man has “won at the game of academia”, said Candida Moss, professor of theology at Birmingham University. In 2001, he was awarded a MacArthur “genius” award for his expertise in “rescuing damaged ancient manuscripts from the ravages of nature and time”. Over the course of his career, he has received millions in funding; he is currently, in theory at least, running an £800,000 project on the papyrus rolls carbonised by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD79.

Since he was appointed in 1995, Obbink has welcomed many visitors into his rooms at Christ Church: dons, undergraduates, researchers. Less orthodox callers, too: among them, antiquities dealers and collectors. In the corner of Obbink’s study stands a pool table, from which two Egyptian mummy masks stare out impenetrably. Its green baize surface is all but obscured by papers and manuscripts – even, sometimes, a folder or two containing fragments of ancient papyrus. One bibliophile remembers a visit to this room, “like the set of an Indiana Jones movie”, a few years ago. He was offered an antique manuscript for sale by a man named Mahmoud Elder, with whom Obbink owned a company, now dissolved, called Castle Folio.

One blustery evening towards the end of Michaelmas term, 2011, two visiting Americans climbed Obbink’s staircase – Drs Scott Carroll and Jerry Pattengale. Both worked for the Greens, a family of American conservative evangelicals who have made billions from a chain of crafting stores called Hobby Lobby. At the time, the family was embarking on an ambitious new project: the Museum of the Bible, which opened in Washington DC in 2017. Carroll was then its director. Items for the Green collection were bought by Hobby Lobby, then donated to the museum, bringing a substantial tax write-off. Pattengale was the head of the Green Scholars Initiative, a project offering academics research opportunities on items in the Green collection.

The Greens, advised by Carroll, were buying biblical artefacts, such as Torahs and early papyrus manuscripts of the New Testament, at a dizzying pace: $70m was spent on 55,000 objects between 2009 and 2012, Carroll claimed later. The market in a hitherto arcane area of collecting sky-rocketed. “Fortunes were made. At least two vendors who had been making €1-2m a year were suddenly making €100-200m a year,” said one longtime collector.

That wintry evening, Carroll and Pattengale were making one of their occasional trips to seek Obbink’s expertise on matters papyrological. According to Pattengale, just as they were about to leave, Obbink reached into a manila envelope and pulled out four papyrus fragments, one from each of the gospels. Obbink told them that three of these scraps dated from the second century AD.

But the fourth, a fragment of the Gospel of Mark – a 4cm by 4cm scrap the shape of a butterfly’s wing, containing just a few broken words – was earlier than that. It wasP137 ou P. Oxy. 5453 almost certainly from the first century AD, which would make it the oldest surviving manuscript of the New Testament, copied less than 30 years after Mark had actually written it. Conservative evangelicals place enormous weight on the Gospels as “God-breathed” words. The idea that such an object existed was indescribably thrilling. Carroll was “ecstatic”, Pattengale recalled. “Veins along his neck bulged. He paced with arms flailing.”

Carroll, who declined to be interviewed, has said that Pattengale’s account is full of “misrepresentations, misrecollections, and exaggerations”. But he has confirmed this: Obbink showed him the Mark fragment “on the pool table in his office … and he then went into some paleographic detail why he believed it must date to the late-first century … It was in this conversation that he offered it for consideration for Hobby Lobby to buy.”

No purchase was made at the time. Nevertheless, the objects did eventually end up being sold to the Greens, after Carroll left their employ in 2012. The vendor, or so it appears, was Dirk Obbink. His name, and seemingly his signature, appear on a purchase agreement with Hobby Lobby dated 4 February 2013.

The problem is that the items – if the purchase agreement is genuine – were not Obbink’s to sell. They are part of the Oxyrhynchus collection of ancient papyrus, owned by the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) and housed at Oxford’s Sackler Library.

Thirteen additional fragments from the collection, it transpired this autumn, had also been sold to the Greens, 11 apparently by Obbink in 2010, and two by a Jerusalem-based antiquities dealer, Baidun & Sons. (A spokesperson for the company’s owner, Alan Baidun, says he was an agent acting in good faith, and that he checked the provenance supplied by the person who sold them to him.)

Six further fragments from the Oxyrhynchus collection have turned up in the possession of another collector in the US, Andrew Stimer, a spokesperson for whom says he acquired them in good faith, and with an apparently complete provenance (though parts of it have subsequently been shown to have been falsified). The dealer who sold them to Stimer told him they had come from the collection of M Elder of Dearborn, Michigan. That is, Mahmoud Elder, Obbink’s sometime business partner. (Elder did not respond to requests for comment. Both the Museum of the Bible and Stimer have cooperated fully with the EES, and have taken steps to return the fragments.)

In total, the EES has now discovered that 120 fragments have gone missing from the Oxyrhynchus collection over the past 10 years. Since the appearance, in June 2019, of that fateful purchase agreement and invoice bearing Obbink’s name, the scale of the scandal has taken time to sink in. What kind of a person – what kind of an academic – would steal, sell, and profit from artefacts in their care? Such an act would be “the most staggering betrayal of the values and ethics of our profession”, according to the Manchester University papyrologist Roberta Mazza.

The alleged thefts were reported to Thames Valley police on 12 November. No one has yet been arrested or charged. Obbink has not responded to interview requests from the Guardian, and has issued only one public statement. “The allegations made against me that I have stolen, removed or sold items owned by the Egypt Exploration Society collection at the University of Oxford are entirely false,” he has said. “I would never betray the trust of my colleagues and the values which I have sought to protect and uphold throughout my academic career in the way that has been alleged. I am aware that there are documents being used against me which I believe have been fabricated in a malicious attempt to harm my reputation and career.”

It seems that Dr Dirk Obbink is either a thief, has been caught up in a colossal misunderstanding, or, perhaps most shockingly of all, is the victim of an elaborate effort to frame him (continua).

Quem quiser ver apenas os pontos relevantes, pode ler o post de Peter Gurry, Longform Guardian Article on the Mark Fragment Saga, publicado hoje no blog Evangelical Textual Criticism.

Um roteiro para o estudo da Septuaginta

Recomendo o artigo de Leonardo Pessoa da Silva Pinto, brasileiro, Professor no Pontifício Instituto Bíblico. Uma contribuição valiosa, escrita com clareza, em assunto pouco conhecido em nosso meio. Está disponível em pdf na ReBiblica, v. 1, n. 2, p. 186-198, jul.-dez. 2018.

Redescobrindo a Septuaginta: Itinerário para o estudo da Bíblia Grega

Leonardo Pessoa da Silva Pinto

Este artigo apresenta a redescoberta da Septuaginta ocorrida na pesquisa contemporânea, com o aumento considerável na produção bibliográfica e o surgimento de novos projetos, movimento que teve pouco impacto na pesquisa bíblica no Brasil. O objetivo desta contribuição é indicar as obras e tendências recentes mais importantes nos estudos sobre a Septuaginta, bem como oferecer uma avaliação das mesmas, a fim de que o biblista ou o estudante ainda não familiarizado com a literatura especializada sobre a LXX possa seguir um itinerário de aprofundamento neste campo, segundo os próprios interesses acadêmicos. Oferece-se uma bússola para que o iniciante possa se orientar na imensa bibliografia a respeito, mas também uma via para o iniciado que deseje aprofundar temas específicos relacionados à LXX. Conhecer o estado atual da pesquisa sobre a Septuaginta, bem como as perspectivas que se abrem para o futuro, é essencial para a exegese seja do Antigo, seja do Novo Testamento; a Bíblia grega não pode mais ser relegada a uma posição secundária no campo dos estudos bíblicos.


Na introdução do artigo, Leonardo explica:

Nas últimas décadas houve uma redescoberta da Septuaginta que provocou uma enxurrada de novas teses doutorais, projetos de pesquisa, traduções e comentários HARL, M.; DORIVAL, G.; MUNNICH, O. A Bíblia grega dos Setenta: do judaísmo helenístico ao cristianismo antigo. São Paulo: Loyola, 2007.sobre o texto da LXX. O interesse pela Septuaginta não se limita mais à sua importância para se emendar o texto hebraico, mas ela se tornou campo de pesquisa em si mesma, dentro do qual vários subcampos vão surgindo, como se verá abaixo. Não obstante esse aumento no interesse pela Septuaginta e na bibliografia a seu respeito no cenário internacional, a LXX parece ter despertado pouca atenção entre os pesquisadores brasileiros. Recentemente, ao descrever a situação da pesquisa sobre a LXX no Brasil e no restante da América do Sul para o Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Rodrigo Franklin de Sousa pôde intitular seu artigo “mapeando um território inexistente” (2018, p. 62-64). Mesmo considerando que algumas iniciativas tenham sido omitidas naquele artigo, é preciso reconhecer que a LXX permanece numa situação marginal na pesquisa e na produção bibliográfica brasileiras. Nesta situação, é possível que o pesquisador brasileiro tenha dificuldades até mesmo para saber como iniciar a pesquisa sobre a LXX. Neste artigo, serão apresentados os instrumentos para o estudo da LXX, com um comentário sobre sua qualidade e utilidade, bem como alguns dos projetos importantes em curso. Será oferecido um itinerário para o não especialista em estudos da Septuaginta, desde o completo iniciante até quem recebeu apenas noções introdutórias. Como se verá, um dos maiores problemas para o biblista de língua portuguesa é a falta de literatura no nosso idioma. Além do grego, o conhecimento do inglês, neste contexto, se torna praticamente obrigatório.

E na conclusão diz:

RAHLFS, A. ; HANHART, R. (eds.) Septuaginta. Editio altera. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007.Para que o Brasil seja um dia colocado no mapa dos estudos da Septuaginta, é necessário que o pesquisador brasileiro se familiarize com as questões mais importantes e os estudos a seu respeito, e então os leve em consideração no seu trabalho de exegese e de interpretação bíblica. Passar de uma noção apenas geral e superficial a uma compreensão mais aprofundada sobre a LXX e o impacto que pode ter em todas as dimensões do trabalho exegético é um pré-requisito para se aproveitar todo o potencial da tradução grega. Desde boas introduções até monografias especializadas, hoje não faltam instrumentos para o estudo da LXX, embora devamos admitir que a disponibilidade de material em língua portuguesa ainda deixa muito a desejar. Muitas tendências na pesquisa bíblica chegam ao Brasil com décadas de atraso e a questão da revalorização da Septuaginta não é uma exceção. Espero que este artigo sirva de auxílio e itinerário para quem desejar entrar nesse mundo apaixonante e tão fundamental para os estudos bíblicos, e possa contribuir para que a LXX deixe de ser no nosso meio uma ilustre desconhecida.

Fragmento de Marcos foi escrito entre 150 e 250 d.C.

Especialistas avaliam que o P137 foi escrito entre 150 e 250 d.C. O manuscrito mede apenas 4,4 x 4 cm, e contém algumas letras dos versículos 7–9 e 16–18 do capítulo 1 do evangelho de Marcos. Mesmo que não seja tão antigo quanto muitos esperavam – fora divulgado que seria do século I -, o P137 ainda é uma descoberta significativa, pois é provável que este seja o mais antigo fragmento do evangelho de Marcos até agora descoberto.

Para entender o caso, leia dois posts de fevereiro de 2012:

Descoberto fragmento de Marcos do século I?

Esclarecimentos sobre o fragmento de Marcos do século I

Depois, leia*:

Despite Disappointing Some, New Mark Manuscript Is Earliest Yet

By Elijah Hixson – Christianity Today: May 30, 2018

Bible scholars have been waiting for the Gospel fragment’s publication for years.

The Egypt Exploration Society has recently published a Greek papyrus that is likely the earliest fragment of the Gospel of Mark, dating it from between A.D. 150–250. One might expect happiness at such a publication, but this important fragment actually disappointed many observers. The reason stems from the unusual way that this manuscript became famous before it became available.

Second (or Third) Things First

In late 2011, manuscript scholar Scott Carroll—then working for what would become the Museum of the Bible in Washington D.C.—tweeted the tantalizing announcement that the earliest-known manuscript of the New Testament was no longer the second-century John Rylands papyrus (P52). In early 2012, Daniel B. Wallace, senior research professor of New Testament at Dallas Theological Seminary, seemed to confirm Carroll’s statement. In a debate with Bart D. Ehrman, Wallace reported that a fragment of Mark’s gospel, dated to the first century, had been discovered.

As unlikely as a first-century Gospel manuscript is, the fragment was allegedly dated by a world-class specialist. This preeminent authority was not an evangelical Christian, either. He had no apologetic motive for assigning the early date. The manuscript, Wallace claimed, was to be published later that year in a book from Brill, an academic publisher that has since begun publishing items in the Museum of the Bible collection. When pressed for more information, Wallace refrained from saying anything new. He later signed a non-disclosure agreement and was bound to silence until the Mark fragment was published.

As a general rule, earlier manuscripts get us closer to the original text than later manuscripts because there are assumed to be fewer copies between them and the autographs (the original copies of the NT writings, most likely lost to history). Naturally, this news of a first-century copy of Mark generated a great deal of interest.

A first-century fragment of Mark’s gospel would be significant for several reasons. First, the earliest substantial manuscripts of the New Testament come from the third century. Any Christian text written earlier than A.D. 200 is a rare and remarkable find, much less one written before the early 100s. Second, early fragments of Mark’s gospel are scarce. Not all books of the New Testament are equally well-represented in our manuscripts, especially early on. There are several early papyri of Matthew and John, but before this new fragment was published, there was only one existing copy of Mark’s gospel produced before the 300s. Finally, a first-century manuscript of Mark would be the earliest manuscript of the New Testament to survive from antiquity, written within 40 years of when the Holy Spirit inspired the original through the pen of the evangelist himself. Needless to say, a first-century fragment of Mark was a bombshell.

Out of the Garbage Dump

Six years came and went, and there was no “first-century Mark” fragment. But information kept leaking. On stage at a conference in 2015, Scott Carroll told Josh McDowell that the manuscript had been for sale at least twice, after the first attempt was unsuccessful.

It was difficult to know who had even seen the manuscript. Only Carroll would publicly state that he had seen it. Carroll claimed to have seen the fragment in person twice, both times in the possession of Dirk Obbink. Obbink is a renowned papyrologist at the University of Oxford, and he is almost certainly the non-evangelical specialist to whom Wallace attributed the first-century date. New Testament scholars Craig Evans and Gary Habermas were among others who spoke about the fragment, generating even more excitement.

The manuscript has finally been published, but some are disappointed because it is not what they were hoping for: It’s not from the first-century.

The fragment, designated P137, was not published in a Brill volume as Wallace had predicted, nor is it part of the holdings of the Museum of the Bible in Washington D.C. as many had assumed it would be. Instead, it was published in the latest installment of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri series by the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) with the identifier P.Oxy. 83.5345.

The Oxyrhynchus papyri constitute a collection of hundreds of thousands of manuscript fragments excavated from an ancient Egyptian garbage dump near Oxyrhynchus between 1896 and 1906. Since the first volume was produced in 1898, only about one percent of the collection has been published. Among the papyri are biblical texts, apocryphal texts, classical texts, tax receipts, letters, and even a contract that stipulates the pre-determined outcome of a wrestling match.

The publication of P137 was prepared by Oxford papyrologists Daniela Colomo and Dirk Obbink. Although news releases from the EES about individual papyri are highly unusual, the organization issued a statement last week reporting that P137 was excavated probably in 1903, that Obbink had previously shown the papyrus to visitors to Oxford, and that it had been preliminarily dated to the first century. Obbink and Colomo admit in the edition that the handwriting is difficult to date. Scott Carroll stated that P137 is indeed the manuscript he had spoken about as “first-century Mark,” and Dan Wallace finally broke his six-year silence on the matter.

On the basis of the handwriting, Obbink and Colomo estimate that the manuscript was written in the range of A.D. 150–250. The manuscript itself is tiny, only 4.4 x 4 cm. It contains a few letters on each side from verses 7–9 and 16–18 of Mark 1. Lines of writing preserved on each side indicate that this fragment comes from the bottom of the first written page of a codex—a book rather than a scroll. The text does not present any surprising readings for a manuscript of its age, and the codex format is also what we would expect.

Even though it is not quite so early as many hoped, P137 is still a significant find. Its date range makes it likely the earliest copy of Mark’s gospel. The fact that the text presents us with no new variants is partially a reflection of the overall stability of the New Testament text over time. Moreover, P137 is not the only new papyrus of the New Testament to be published in the latest Oxyrhynchus volume. Also published are P138, a third-century papyrus of Luke 13:13–17 and 13:25–30, and P139, a fourth-century papyrus of Philemon 6–8 and 18–20. P138 overlaps with two roughly contemporary manuscripts of Luke, which allows us better opportunity to assess the early transmission of Luke’s gospel. Additionally, early manuscripts of Philemon are rare, and P139 is among the earliest.

It should be stated, however, that we have no shortage of New Testament manuscripts. There are about 5,300 Greek manuscripts of the New Testament of various sizes and dates. Such an “embarrassment of riches,” as they have been called, allows us to reconstruct the original text of the New Testament with a high degree of confidence. As exciting as they are, textually speaking, new manuscript discoveries tend to confirm or at most fine-tune our Greek New Testament editions. As an example, our Greek New Testaments would be exactly the same with or without our current earliest New Testament manuscript, P52.

Questions Remain

One lingering question is whether or not the new Mark fragment was ever up for sale. The EES, which owns the papyrus, emphatically denies that they ever attempted to sell it. Yet, Scott Carroll and others have reported that it was indeed offered for sale. In a comment on the post that broke the news about the EES publication at the blog Evangelical Textual Criticism, someone commenting as Carroll named Dirk Obbink as the one who offered the papyrus to him. Obbink was formerly editor of the Oxyrhynchus collection, and Carroll was involved in acquisitions for the Green family at the time. Some of that collection later became part of the Museum of the Bible collection.

Many people—including Carroll himself—believed that the Greens had at some point purchased the manuscript until it appeared in an Oxyrhynchus volume. Obbink recently denied attempting to sell the manuscript to the Greens, according to Candida Moss and Joel Baden, writing for The Daily Beast. When I contacted Carroll and Obbink for statements, Carroll replied that he had nothing to add to or subtract from his story, and Obbink did not respond.

This new publication is only the first word on the manuscript. There is surely much more to come. Manuscript dates are often disputed, though I expect the question will be whether P137 could be later, not whether it could be earlier. Multi-spectral imaging and digital image processing open new doors to deciphering and understanding manuscripts, and P137 might benefit from such types of analysis.

Rather than disappointment that P137 is not quite as early as once thought, the publication of P137 is a cause to celebrate. We have another significant find, and it is the earliest manuscript of Mark 1! The excavations of Oxyrhynchus continue to yield valuable artifacts of antiquity including new biblical manuscripts after over a century of publishing. We can happily look forward to more unknown treasures yet to come.

The EES has made the publication, including images of P137, available here.

Elijah Hixson is an adjunct lecturer at Edinburgh Bible College. He has written articles for academic journals and is a regular contributor to the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog.

* Artigo reproduzido na íntegra

> Atualização: 14.06.2018 – 10h40

‘First-Century’ Mark Fragment: Second Update – On 11 June 2018 – By Daniel B. Wallace

Update on P137 (P.Oxy. 83.5345)  –  By Elijah Hixson: Evangelical Textual Criticism – June 11, 2018

“First Century” Mark and “Second Century” Romans and “Second Century” Hebrews and “Second Century” 1 Corinthians – By Brent Nongbri: Variant Readings – June 12, 2018

Leia Mais:
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
“First-Century Mark,” Published at Last? [Updated]

Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition

LANIER, G. R. ; ROSS, W. A. (eds.) Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2018, 3400 p. – ISBN 9781619708433.

LANIER, G. R. ; ROSS, W. A. (eds.) Septuaginta: A Reader's Edition.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2018

Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition presents the complete text of the Greek Old Testament (including the apocryphal/deuterocanonical books), accompanied by bottom-of-the-page glosses for infrequent words and (where applicable) parsings as well as an appendix providing a glossary of common words.

This project was initiated in 2014 by Greg Lanier and Will Ross, who—after seeing the positive reception of the HB and GNT “Reader’s Editions,” which provide the full original text with vocabulary helps and other aids—saw the need for such an edition for the Septuagint. The goal of this project is to provide students of Koine Greek, especially those with an interest in the OT and NT, with the full text of the Greek OT (including double-texts and apocrypha) in such a form that they can read longer portions of text without constantly consulting a lexicon or parsing guide.

After years of work and a fantastic partnership with the editorial staff at Hendrickson Publishers, we are proud to be releasing (est. November 2018) this two-volume work, which includes 1,175 chapters of Greek text across over 3,300 pages, English headings to assist the reader, and over 125,000 vocabulary glosses in the running apparatus.

Why Did We Choose Rahlfs-Hanhart as the Basis for this Reader’s Edition?

Leia Mais:

Bíblia Hebraica, Setenta e Novo Testamento Grego para Android

Biblia Hebraica, SBLGNT, LXX, and Apostolic Fathers for Android

Baixe aplicativos, para Android, da Bíblia Hebraica, Setenta (LXX), Novo Testamento Grego e Padres Apostólicos.

Busque na Play Store por Matt Robertson.

Clique aqui e saiba mais.

Lembro aos interessados que no site da Sociedade Bíblica Alemã (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft = DBG) estão disponíveis online textos originais das seguintes edições da Bíblia: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia – Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. Nestle-Aland), 28. Edição – Novo Testamento Grego (UBS5) – Septuaginta (ed. Rahlfs/Hanhart) – Vulgata (ed. Weber/Gryson). Clique aqui.

Texto da Torá de aproximadamente 1000 d.C.

Uma folha de um rolo da Torá, contendo Ex 10,10-16,15, foi adquirida pela Biblioteca do Congresso dos Estados Unidos.

O que é este manuscrito? Foram recuperados outros textos da Torá datando do primeiro milênio d.C.?

The World’s Oldest Torah Scrolls – By Gary A. Rendsburg – ANE Today: March 2018

Torah Scroll Sheet dated ca. 1000 C.E., containing Exodus 10:10-16:15. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., U.S.

A recent announcement by the Library of Congress regarding the purchase of a single Torah scroll sheet dating from approximately 1000 C.E. has generated great interest in the topic of old Torah scrolls. Just what are the world’s oldest Torah scrolls and where does the Library of Congress scroll fit in?

The Library of Congress scroll sheet contains five columns of text, comprising Exodus 10:10-16:15, a portion extending from the Plague of Locusts to the appearance of Manna in the desert. Included within the text is the Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1‒19).

According to an inscription in both Hebrew and Russian on the back of the scroll, the sheet was presented by Shelomo Beim (1817-1867 C.E.), Karaite hazzan in Chufut-Kale, Crimea, to Grand Duke Constantine, brother of Czar Alexander II, in the year 1863. One may assume that the scroll sheet emanates from the Near East, based on considerations of text, handwriting, section divisions, and layout of the Song of the Sea.

At some point, the scroll sheet was taken to England, where in 2001 it was offered for sale by Christie’s Auction House. Fortunately, before the sale, Jordan Penkower of Bar-Ilan University was able to study the document closely and described it in a very detailed article in the journal Textus.

In 2017, the sheet was again offered for sale, this time by the 2001 buyer, the noted rare book dealer Stephan Loewenthiel. The Library of Congress purchased the sheet, and the Hebraic Section of the African and Middle Eastern Division now serves as the custodian of this exceedingly important document. I had the opportunity to inspect the scroll sheet at the Library of Congress in October 2017, courtesy of Dr. Ann Brener, head of the Hebraic Section, in advance of the Library’s public announcement in January 2018.

But is this document unique? How many truly old Torah scrolls are there? How many survive from approximately 1000 years ago or more? Readers of The Ancient Near East Today are like aware of the approximately 220 biblical manuscripts from amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, dating from 3rd century B.C.E. to 1st century C.E., along with the related documents from Masada, Naḥal Ḥever, Wadi Murabba‘at, and other sites, which date from the 1st-2nd centuries C.E. [sobre os Manuscritos do Mar Morto, leia aqui] But what about the ensuing centuries, until we reach the date of the Library of Congress portion at approximately 1000 C.E.? What scrolls, or portions of scrolls, do we possess?

Leia o texto completo.

Sobre os manuscritos hebraicos que utilizamos hoje, leia a parte final do post As diferentes tradições do hebraico bíblico.


“Habitando um número considerável de judeus em nosso território (…) e desejoso de lhes ser agradável (…), nós decidimos mandar traduzir vossa Lei do hebraico para o grego, para termos estes livros também em nossa biblioteca, com os outros ‘livros do rei’” (O rei Ptolomeu II Filadelfo ao sumo sacerdote Eleazar, segundo a Carta de Aristeias a Filócrates, séc. II a.C.). 

RAHLFS, A. ; HANHART, R. (eds.) Septuaginta. Editio altera. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007.

Em 2006 a International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) estabeleceu o dia 8 de fevereiro como International Septuagint Day (Dia Internacional da Septuaginta), uma data para celebrar a Septuaginta (= LXX, Setenta) e incentivar seu estudo.

Para a origem da Septuaginta, recomendo o início de meu artigo Quem somos nós? Falam autores judeus antigos.

Li dois interessantes textos de Tavis Bohlinger, com bibliografia no final do segundo:

BOHLINGER, T. The Origin of the LXX. theLAB – The Logos Academic Blog – February 8, 2018

BOHLINGER, T. The Influence of the LXX. theLAB – The Logos Academic Blog – February 9, 2018

E duas entrevistas:

Interview with Dr James K. Aitken – Interaction of Traditions: February 8, 2018

International LXX Day: An Interview with T. Muraoka – William A. Ross: Septuaginta &C. – February 8, 2018

Leia Mais:
Estudos sobre a Septuaginta em 2016
LXX Resources
LXX Scholar Interviews

Tyndale House Greek New Testament

The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge está disponível em STEP Bible.

The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge


Initial thoughts on the Tyndale House Greek New Testament – By Peter Gurry

Dan Wallace, Larry Hurtado, James Snapp, Todd Scacewater, and Brice Jones have all given us their first impressions on the Tyndale House Greek New Testament (THGNT) and, since I have now had some time to look over my gratis copy, I thought I would share some of mine.

Fonte: Evangelical Textual Criticism – Monday, November 13, 2017