Fragmento de Marcos foi escrito entre 150 e 250 d.C.

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Especialistas avaliam que o P137 foi escrito entre 150 e 250 d.C. O manuscrito mede apenas 4,4 x 4 cm, e contém algumas letras dos versículos 7–9 e 16–18 do capítulo 1 do evangelho de Marcos. Mesmo que não seja tão antigo quanto muitos esperavam – fora divulgado que seria do século I -, o P137 ainda é uma descoberta significativa, pois é provável que este seja o mais antigo fragmento do evangelho de Marcos até agora descoberto.

Para entender o caso, leia dois posts de fevereiro de 2012:

Descoberto fragmento de Marcos do século I?

Esclarecimentos sobre o fragmento de Marcos do século I

Depois, leia*:

Despite Disappointing Some, New Mark Manuscript Is Earliest Yet

By Elijah Hixson – Christianity Today: May 30, 2018

Bible scholars have been waiting for the Gospel fragment’s publication for years.

The Egypt Exploration Society has recently published a Greek papyrus that is likely the earliest fragment of the Gospel of Mark, dating it from between A.D. 150–250. One might expect happiness at such a publication, but this important fragment actually disappointed many observers. The reason stems from the unusual way that this manuscript became famous before it became available.

Second (or Third) Things First

In late 2011, manuscript scholar Scott Carroll—then working for what would become the Museum of the Bible in Washington D.C.—tweeted the tantalizing announcement that the earliest-known manuscript of the New Testament was no longer the second-century John Rylands papyrus (P52). In early 2012, Daniel B. Wallace, senior research professor of New Testament at Dallas Theological Seminary, seemed to confirm Carroll’s statement. In a debate with Bart D. Ehrman, Wallace reported that a fragment of Mark’s gospel, dated to the first century, had been discovered.

As unlikely as a first-century Gospel manuscript is, the fragment was allegedly dated by a world-class specialist. This preeminent authority was not an evangelical Christian, either. He had no apologetic motive for assigning the early date. The manuscript, Wallace claimed, was to be published later that year in a book from Brill, an academic publisher that has since begun publishing items in the Museum of the Bible collection. When pressed for more information, Wallace refrained from saying anything new. He later signed a non-disclosure agreement and was bound to silence until the Mark fragment was published.

As a general rule, earlier manuscripts get us closer to the original text than later manuscripts because there are assumed to be fewer copies between them and the autographs (the original copies of the NT writings, most likely lost to history). Naturally, this news of a first-century copy of Mark generated a great deal of interest.

A first-century fragment of Mark’s gospel would be significant for several reasons. First, the earliest substantial manuscripts of the New Testament come from the third century. Any Christian text written earlier than A.D. 200 is a rare and remarkable find, much less one written before the early 100s. Second, early fragments of Mark’s gospel are scarce. Not all books of the New Testament are equally well-represented in our manuscripts, especially early on. There are several early papyri of Matthew and John, but before this new fragment was published, there was only one existing copy of Mark’s gospel produced before the 300s. Finally, a first-century manuscript of Mark would be the earliest manuscript of the New Testament to survive from antiquity, written within 40 years of when the Holy Spirit inspired the original through the pen of the evangelist himself. Needless to say, a first-century fragment of Mark was a bombshell.

Out of the Garbage Dump

Six years came and went, and there was no “first-century Mark” fragment. But information kept leaking. On stage at a conference in 2015, Scott Carroll told Josh McDowell that the manuscript had been for sale at least twice, after the first attempt was unsuccessful.

It was difficult to know who had even seen the manuscript. Only Carroll would publicly state that he had seen it. Carroll claimed to have seen the fragment in person twice, both times in the possession of Dirk Obbink. Obbink is a renowned papyrologist at the University of Oxford, and he is almost certainly the non-evangelical specialist to whom Wallace attributed the first-century date. New Testament scholars Craig Evans and Gary Habermas were among others who spoke about the fragment, generating even more excitement.

The manuscript has finally been published, but some are disappointed because it is not what they were hoping for: It’s not from the first-century.

The fragment, designated P137, was not published in a Brill volume as Wallace had predicted, nor is it part of the holdings of the Museum of the Bible in Washington D.C. as many had assumed it would be. Instead, it was published in the latest installment of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri series by the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) with the identifier P.Oxy. 83.5345.

The Oxyrhynchus papyri constitute a collection of hundreds of thousands of manuscript fragments excavated from an ancient Egyptian garbage dump near Oxyrhynchus between 1896 and 1906. Since the first volume was produced in 1898, only about one percent of the collection has been published. Among the papyri are biblical texts, apocryphal texts, classical texts, tax receipts, letters, and even a contract that stipulates the pre-determined outcome of a wrestling match.

The publication of P137 was prepared by Oxford papyrologists Daniela Colomo and Dirk Obbink. Although news releases from the EES about individual papyri are highly unusual, the organization issued a statement last week reporting that P137 was excavated probably in 1903, that Obbink had previously shown the papyrus to visitors to Oxford, and that it had been preliminarily dated to the first century. Obbink and Colomo admit in the edition that the handwriting is difficult to date. Scott Carroll stated that P137 is indeed the manuscript he had spoken about as “first-century Mark,” and Dan Wallace finally broke his six-year silence on the matter.

On the basis of the handwriting, Obbink and Colomo estimate that the manuscript was written in the range of A.D. 150–250. The manuscript itself is tiny, only 4.4 x 4 cm. It contains a few letters on each side from verses 7–9 and 16–18 of Mark 1. Lines of writing preserved on each side indicate that this fragment comes from the bottom of the first written page of a codex—a book rather than a scroll. The text does not present any surprising readings for a manuscript of its age, and the codex format is also what we would expect.

Even though it is not quite so early as many hoped, P137 is still a significant find. Its date range makes it likely the earliest copy of Mark’s gospel. The fact that the text presents us with no new variants is partially a reflection of the overall stability of the New Testament text over time. Moreover, P137 is not the only new papyrus of the New Testament to be published in the latest Oxyrhynchus volume. Also published are P138, a third-century papyrus of Luke 13:13–17 and 13:25–30, and P139, a fourth-century papyrus of Philemon 6–8 and 18–20. P138 overlaps with two roughly contemporary manuscripts of Luke, which allows us better opportunity to assess the early transmission of Luke’s gospel. Additionally, early manuscripts of Philemon are rare, and P139 is among the earliest.

It should be stated, however, that we have no shortage of New Testament manuscripts. There are about 5,300 Greek manuscripts of the New Testament of various sizes and dates. Such an “embarrassment of riches,” as they have been called, allows us to reconstruct the original text of the New Testament with a high degree of confidence. As exciting as they are, textually speaking, new manuscript discoveries tend to confirm or at most fine-tune our Greek New Testament editions. As an example, our Greek New Testaments would be exactly the same with or without our current earliest New Testament manuscript, P52.

Questions Remain

One lingering question is whether or not the new Mark fragment was ever up for sale. The EES, which owns the papyrus, emphatically denies that they ever attempted to sell it. Yet, Scott Carroll and others have reported that it was indeed offered for sale. In a comment on the post that broke the news about the EES publication at the blog Evangelical Textual Criticism, someone commenting as Carroll named Dirk Obbink as the one who offered the papyrus to him. Obbink was formerly editor of the Oxyrhynchus collection, and Carroll was involved in acquisitions for the Green family at the time. Some of that collection later became part of the Museum of the Bible collection.

Many people—including Carroll himself—believed that the Greens had at some point purchased the manuscript until it appeared in an Oxyrhynchus volume. Obbink recently denied attempting to sell the manuscript to the Greens, according to Candida Moss and Joel Baden, writing for The Daily Beast. When I contacted Carroll and Obbink for statements, Carroll replied that he had nothing to add to or subtract from his story, and Obbink did not respond.

This new publication is only the first word on the manuscript. There is surely much more to come. Manuscript dates are often disputed, though I expect the question will be whether P137 could be later, not whether it could be earlier. Multi-spectral imaging and digital image processing open new doors to deciphering and understanding manuscripts, and P137 might benefit from such types of analysis.

Rather than disappointment that P137 is not quite as early as once thought, the publication of P137 is a cause to celebrate. We have another significant find, and it is the earliest manuscript of Mark 1! The excavations of Oxyrhynchus continue to yield valuable artifacts of antiquity including new biblical manuscripts after over a century of publishing. We can happily look forward to more unknown treasures yet to come.

The EES has made the publication, including images of P137, available here.

Elijah Hixson is an adjunct lecturer at Edinburgh Bible College. He has written articles for academic journals and is a regular contributor to the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog.

* Artigo reproduzido na íntegra

> Atualização: 14.06.2018 – 10h40

‘First-Century’ Mark Fragment: Second Update – On 11 June 2018 – By Daniel B. Wallace

Update on P137 (P.Oxy. 83.5345)  –  By Elijah Hixson: Evangelical Textual Criticism – June 11, 2018

“First Century” Mark and “Second Century” Romans and “Second Century” Hebrews and “Second Century” 1 Corinthians – By Brent Nongbri: Variant Readings – June 12, 2018

Leia Mais:
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
“First-Century Mark,” Published at Last? [Updated]

Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition

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LANIER, G. R. ; ROSS, W. A. (eds.) Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2018, 3400 p. – ISBN 9781619708433.

LANIER, G. R. ; ROSS, W. A. (eds.) Septuaginta: A Reader's Edition.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2018

Septuaginta: A Reader’s Edition presents the complete text of the Greek Old Testament (including the apocryphal/deuterocanonical books), accompanied by bottom-of-the-page glosses for infrequent words and (where applicable) parsings as well as an appendix providing a glossary of common words.

This project was initiated in 2014 by Greg Lanier and Will Ross, who—after seeing the positive reception of the HB and GNT “Reader’s Editions,” which provide the full original text with vocabulary helps and other aids—saw the need for such an edition for the Septuagint. The goal of this project is to provide students of Koine Greek, especially those with an interest in the OT and NT, with the full text of the Greek OT (including double-texts and apocrypha) in such a form that they can read longer portions of text without constantly consulting a lexicon or parsing guide.

After years of work and a fantastic partnership with the editorial staff at Hendrickson Publishers, we are proud to be releasing (est. November 2018) this two-volume work, which includes 1,175 chapters of Greek text across over 3,300 pages, English headings to assist the reader, and over 125,000 vocabulary glosses in the running apparatus.

Why Did We Choose Rahlfs-Hanhart as the Basis for this Reader’s Edition?

Leia Mais:

Bíblia Hebraica, Setenta e Novo Testamento Grego para Android

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Biblia Hebraica, SBLGNT, LXX, and Apostolic Fathers for Android

Baixe aplicativos, para Android, da Bíblia Hebraica, Setenta (LXX), Novo Testamento Grego e Padres Apostólicos.

Busque na Play Store por Matt Robertson.

Clique aqui e saiba mais.

Lembro aos interessados que no site da Sociedade Bíblica Alemã (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft = DBG) estão disponíveis online textos originais das seguintes edições da Bíblia: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia – Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. Nestle-Aland), 28. Edição – Novo Testamento Grego (UBS5) – Septuaginta (ed. Rahlfs/Hanhart) – Vulgata (ed. Weber/Gryson). Clique aqui.

Texto da Torá de aproximadamente 1000 d.C.

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Uma folha de um rolo da Torá, contendo Ex 10,10-16,15, foi adquirida pela Biblioteca do Congresso dos Estados Unidos.

O que é este manuscrito? Foram recuperados outros textos da Torá datando do primeiro milênio d.C.?

The World’s Oldest Torah Scrolls – By Gary A. Rendsburg – ANE Today: March 2018

Torah Scroll Sheet dated ca. 1000 C.E., containing Exodus 10:10-16:15. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., U.S.

A recent announcement by the Library of Congress regarding the purchase of a single Torah scroll sheet dating from approximately 1000 C.E. has generated great interest in the topic of old Torah scrolls. Just what are the world’s oldest Torah scrolls and where does the Library of Congress scroll fit in?

The Library of Congress scroll sheet contains five columns of text, comprising Exodus 10:10-16:15, a portion extending from the Plague of Locusts to the appearance of Manna in the desert. Included within the text is the Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1‒19).

According to an inscription in both Hebrew and Russian on the back of the scroll, the sheet was presented by Shelomo Beim (1817-1867 C.E.), Karaite hazzan in Chufut-Kale, Crimea, to Grand Duke Constantine, brother of Czar Alexander II, in the year 1863. One may assume that the scroll sheet emanates from the Near East, based on considerations of text, handwriting, section divisions, and layout of the Song of the Sea.

At some point, the scroll sheet was taken to England, where in 2001 it was offered for sale by Christie’s Auction House. Fortunately, before the sale, Jordan Penkower of Bar-Ilan University was able to study the document closely and described it in a very detailed article in the journal Textus.

In 2017, the sheet was again offered for sale, this time by the 2001 buyer, the noted rare book dealer Stephan Loewenthiel. The Library of Congress purchased the sheet, and the Hebraic Section of the African and Middle Eastern Division now serves as the custodian of this exceedingly important document. I had the opportunity to inspect the scroll sheet at the Library of Congress in October 2017, courtesy of Dr. Ann Brener, head of the Hebraic Section, in advance of the Library’s public announcement in January 2018.

But is this document unique? How many truly old Torah scrolls are there? How many survive from approximately 1000 years ago or more? Readers of The Ancient Near East Today are like aware of the approximately 220 biblical manuscripts from amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, dating from 3rd century B.C.E. to 1st century C.E., along with the related documents from Masada, Naḥal Ḥever, Wadi Murabba‘at, and other sites, which date from the 1st-2nd centuries C.E. [sobre os Manuscritos do Mar Morto, leia aqui] But what about the ensuing centuries, until we reach the date of the Library of Congress portion at approximately 1000 C.E.? What scrolls, or portions of scrolls, do we possess?

Leia o texto completo.

Sobre os manuscritos hebraicos que utilizamos hoje, leia a parte final do post As diferentes tradições do hebraico bíblico.


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“Habitando um número considerável de judeus em nosso território (…) e desejoso de lhes ser agradável (…), nós decidimos mandar traduzir vossa Lei do hebraico para o grego, para termos estes livros também em nossa biblioteca, com os outros ‘livros do rei’” (O rei Ptolomeu II Filadelfo ao sumo sacerdote Eleazar, segundo a Carta de Aristeias a Filócrates, séc. II a.C.). 

RAHLFS, A. ; HANHART, R. (eds.) Septuaginta. Editio altera. Stuttgart:  Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007.

Em 2006 a International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) estabeleceu o dia 8 de fevereiro como International Septuagint Day (Dia Internacional da Septuaginta), uma data para celebrar a Septuaginta (= LXX, Setenta) e incentivar seu estudo.

Para a origem da Septuaginta, recomendo o início de meu artigo Quem somos nós? Falam autores judeus antigos.

Li dois interessantes textos de Tavis Bohlinger, com bibliografia no final do segundo:

BOHLINGER, T. The Origin of the LXX. theLAB – The Logos Academic Blog – February 8, 2018

BOHLINGER, T. The Influence of the LXX. theLAB – The Logos Academic Blog – February 9, 2018

E duas entrevistas:

Interview with Dr James K. Aitken – Interaction of Traditions: February 8, 2018

International LXX Day: An Interview with T. Muraoka – William A. Ross: Septuaginta &C. – February 8, 2018

Leia Mais:
Estudos sobre a Septuaginta em 2016
LXX Resources
LXX Scholar Interviews

Tyndale House Greek New Testament

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The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge está disponível em STEP Bible.

The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge

Initial thoughts on the Tyndale House Greek New Testament – By Peter Gurry

Dan Wallace, Larry Hurtado, James Snapp, Todd Scacewater, and Brice Jones have all given us their first impressions on the Tyndale House Greek New Testament (THGNT) and, since I have now had some time to look over my gratis copy, I thought I would share some of mine.

Fonte: Evangelical Textual Criticism – Monday, November 13, 2017

Uma história do Novo Testamento em latim

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HOUGHTON, H. A. G. The Latin New Testament: A Guide to its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 400 p. – ISBN 9780198744733. 

HOUGHTON, H. A. G. The Latin New Testament: A Guide to its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 400 p.

O livro

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the history and development of the Latin New Testament and a user’s guide to the resources available for research and further study. The first five chapters offer a new historical synthesis, bringing together evidence from Christian authors and biblical manuscripts from earliest times to the late Middle Ages. Each witness is considered in its chronological and geographical context, to build up the bigger picture of the transmission of the text. There are chapters introducing features of Latin biblical manuscripts and examining how the Latin tradition may serve as a witness for the Greek New Testament. In addition, each book of the New Testament is considered in turn, with details of the principal witnesses and features of particular textual interest. The three main scholarly editions of the Latin New Testament (the Vetus Latina edition, the Stuttgart Vulgate, and the Oxford Vulgate) are described in detail. Information is also given about other editions and resources, enabling researchers to understand the significance of different approaches and become aware of the latest developments. The Catalogue of Manuscripts gives full details of each manuscript used in the major editions, with bibliographical references and links to sets of digital images. The Appendices include concordances for the different ways in which manuscripts are cited in scholarly literature. An extensive reference bibliography of publications on the Latin New Testament is also supplied.

O sumário

Part I: History
1. From the Beginnings to the End of the Third Century
2. The Fourth Century and the Beginning of the Vulgate
3. Competing Texts: The Fifth to the Seventh Centuries
4. The Eighth and Ninth Centuries
5. The Tenth Century Onwards: Scholarship and Heresy
Part II: Texts
6. Editions and Resources
7. An Overview of the Text of the Latin New Testament
Part III
8. Features of Latin Biblical Manuscripts
9. Catalogue of Latin New Testament Manuscripts
1. Concordances of Manuscript Sigla
2. Latin Prefaces, Prologues, and Capitula for the Books of the New Testament

O autor

H.A.G. Houghton is Reader in New Testament Textual Scholarship at the University of Birmingham, where he is also Deputy Director of the Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing. He is one of the editors of the Gospel according to John and corresponding editor for the principal Pauline Epistles in the Vetus Latina series.

Download gratuito em pdf. Clique aqui.

Bíblia Interlinear

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Se você procura o Antigo Testamento Interlinear Hebraico-Português ou o Novo Testamento Interlinear Grego-Português, veja o site da SBB – Sociedade Bíblica do Brasil. Clique aqui.

É um trabalho feito por gente que entende do assunto.


Antigo Testamento Interlinear Hebraico-Português

Lembro aos interessados que este tipo de texto pode ser encontrado facilmente online em português ou inglês, embora nem tudo seja confiável. E também em vários programas – gratuitos ou não – para estudos bíblicos.

Bibliografia dos Manuscritos Gregos do Novo Testamento

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ELLIOTT, J. K. A Bibliography of Greek New Testament Manuscripts. Third Edition. Leiden: Brill, 2015, 408 p. – ISBN 9789004289239

This bibliography is a comprehensive listing of books, facsimiles, collations and articles relating to some 3,500 Greek New Testament manuscripts, including references to photographic plates and albums. These are divided into the conventional categories of papyri, majuscules, minuscules and lectionaries, as classified in the current Gregory-Aland register. This third revised edition supersedes the two previous editions. Entries from those earlier editions and from three supplements, published as articles in Novum Testamentum, as well as newly published material, are to be found here.

ELLIOTT, J. K. A Bibliography of Greek New Testament Manuscripts. Third Edition. Leiden: Brill, 2015

For over a quarter of a century, Elliott’s Bibliography has rendered sterling service to the text-critical community in providing details of secondary literature arranged  by  New  Testament  manuscript. The  fifteen  years  since  the  publication of its second edition have witnessed a resurgence of interest in this discipline, stimulated in part by new scholarly approaches, the use of computers for textual  editing,  and  the  proliferation  of  digital  images  of  manuscripts  on  the  internet.  With  almost  half  as  many  pages  again,  this  expanded  third  edition  bears witness to the recent increase in activity. In addition, further witnesses continue to be identified: the new Bibliography treats 157 more entries in the Gregory-Aland Liste than its previous edition (H.A.G. Houghton, Novum Testamentum 58 (2016) 422.

O mesmo resenhista informa como o leitor pode chegar – se tiver persistência – a esta informação online no site BiBIL – Bibliographie biblique informatisée de Lausanne:

Readers are informed in the Acknowledgements that the book “is linked to the online bibliographical resources of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Lausanne to be found under its logo BiBIL” (page vii), although there is no further explanation of the significance of this or how the electronic version should be used. The website itself (now and not the address on page 407 of the printed book) is similarly uninformative: some persistence is required for users to discover that, if they select the Recherche thésaurus tab, followed by the ‘+’ symbol next to Thésaurus BiBIL, then Nouveau Testament (Problèmes d’Introduction), then Critique textuelle du Nouveau Testament, then Textes grecs, then Manuscrits, they will be confronted with four further categories corresponding to the divisions of the printed Bibliography. Two further clicks take the user to an entry for each manuscript: selecting this, followed by the Rechercher button at the foot of each page, will bring up a list of publications corresponding to those in the present book, and even boasts links to online versions of certain items.

Quem é o autor?

J. K. Elliott is Professor of New Testament Textual Criticism at the University of Leeds. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Novum Testamentum.

Lista de manuscritos do AT disponíveis online

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Online Digital Manuscripts and Editions

Uma lista de imagens digitais de manuscritos e edições do Antigo Testamento disponíveis online. Este catálogo deve ser visto como um trabalho em andamento. Útil para quem procura recursos primários online que são importantes para o estudo do texto do Antigo Testamento.

Lista compilada por Drew Longacre, da Universidade de Helsinki, Finlândia, em seu blog OTTC: A Blog for Old Testament Textual Criticism.

This page is a list of digital images of manuscripts and editions available online. This catalogue should be viewed as a work in progress, and I will continue to update it with new resources. It is by no means complete, but I hope it will be helpful for those looking for a one-stop portal for finding online primary resources that are significant for the study of the Old Testament text.

Compiled by Drew Longacre on his blog OTTC: A Blog for Old Testament Textual Criticism.

Drew Longacre is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Helsinki’s Centre of Excellence in Changes in Sacred Texts and Traditions.