Mais uma peça do Mecanismo de Anticítera? Talvez não

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Foi encontrada mais uma peça do Mecanismo de Anticítera? Ainda é cedo para dizer. O jornal israelense Haaretz diz que sim, mas confira, no Twitter, aqui.

De qualquer maneira, é uma boa oportunidade para conhecer o mais antigo “computador analógico” até agora descoberto.

Reprodução do Mecanismo de Anticítera, feita por Mogi Vicentini em 2007

:: Peça do mais antigo computador da História é encontrada no Mar Egeu – AH: 14.11.2018

Disco de bronze foi descoberto no mesmo local onde o misterioso Mecanismo de Anticítera, computador analógico de 2100 anos, havia sido encontrado

Um disco de bronze foi encontrado por arqueólogos mergulhadores no fundo do Mar Egeu, próximo à ilha de Anticítera. Os especialistas acreditam que a peça é a parte que faltava da Máquina de Anticítera, computador analógico da Grécia antiga que desapareceu no mesmo local há 2 200 anos. Os restos do computador, datado de 87 a.C., foi resgatado em 1901, a uma profundidade de cerca de 43 metros na costa da ilha de Anticítera, localizada entre Cítera e Creta. O objeto, que parecia uma pedra corroída e esverdeada, não recebeu muita atenção. Em 1971, o físico britânico Derek de Solla Price submeteu o objeto a uma série de análises. Com o auxílio de raios gama, ele descobriu que a “pedra” era, na verdade, um complexo calculador astronômico. Formado por 27 engrenagens de bronze, o aparelho empregava, no século 1 a.C., um tipo de engrenagem que acreditava-se que havia sido desenvolvida apenas no século 16. A Máquina de Anticítera era utilizada para guiar navios, realizar operações matemáticas básicas, calcular a órbita da Lua, do Sol e dos cinco planetas mais próximos da Terra. Também era capaz de prever eclipses lunares e solares. Por isso, é considerada o computador analógico conhecido mais antigo.

:: Missing Piece of Antikythera Mechanism Found on Aegean Seabed – By Philippe Bohstrom – Haaretz- Nov 15, 2018

Bronze disk unearthed by archaeologists in same wreck where original 2,200-year-old computer had been found; also located bits of the ship that Jacques Cousteau and looters hadn’t destroyed

More than 2,200 years after it sank beneath the waves, diving archaeologists have possibly found a missing piece of the Antikythera Mechanism, the fantastically complicated, advanced analog “computer” found in a shipwreck off a Greek island. Scanning shows the encrusted cogwheel to bear an image of Taurus the bull. The Antikythera Mechanism was discovered in 1901, technically speaking. An encrusted lump was salvaged by Greek sponge divers in clunky metal diving suits from the Mediterranean seabed. Not that anybody realized what it was at the time. It would take decades and advanced x-ray technology for scientists to realize that the “rock” was a wondrously advanced sophisticated analog calculator consisting of dozens of intermeshed gears. The Mechanism could do not only basic math: with dozens of exquisitely worked cogwheels, it could calculate the movements of the sun and moon, predict eclipses and equinoxes, and could be used to track the solar system planets, the constellations, and much more.

:: Antikythera anticlimax: ancient computer excitement a case of over-anticipation – By Jamie Seidel – News.com.au – November 14, 2018

The 2200-year-old Antikythera Mechanism, one of the most fascinating archaeological finds, has just suffered a big setback.

The analog computer has fascinated a generation of computer entrepreneurs. So a series of expeditions to the small island of Antikythera between Greece and Crete has been funded to see if more fragments of the mysterious device could be recovered. One tantalising piece was found on the seabed during an expedition last year. A heavily encrusted bronze disc, about 8cm wide. Now, a new article in the Israeli publication Haaretz has sent a quiver of anticipation around the world. It declared it to be a lost cog from the Anikythera mechanism itself. And, as it carried the sign of a bull — Taurus — it proves the machine was more complex than many dared dream. But … not so fast.

:: No, Archaeologists Probably Did Not Find a New Piece of the Antikythera Mechanism – By Jason Daley – Smithsonian.com – November 15, 2018

A bronze disc found near the shipwreck last year is likely not a cog wheel from the ancient Greek astronomical proto-computer

This week, word began to spread around some corners of the web that a new piece of the legendary ancient Greek computer known as the Antikythera Mechanism may have been found. But the claims, which surfaced following a Haaretz feature on the ongoing archaeological work in the area where the device was first uncovered, are misleading at best.

The Antikythera Mechanism is one of the most well-known and intriguing archaeological discoveries of all time. During a 1900-1901 investigation, sponge divers near the Greek island of Antikythera discovered the arms of bronze and marble statues reaching out of the seabed, remains of a shipwreck dating to the 1st or 2nd century B.C., and a rock-encrusted object that appeared to be a series of cogs and gears. Over the coming decades, researchers examined the mechanism, eventually determining it was likely a complex device that contained more than 30 gears used to calculate the date, position of planets, constellations and, perhaps, additional information. It was, in other words, a primitive sort of computer. But pieces of the salvaged device, including some cogs, were missing, presumably lying on the sea floor at the wreck site.

Researchers have since returned to the site in hopes of finding these lost pieces, including Jacques Cousteau who found bones at the wreck and pulled up bronze statues in 1976. Two other scientific expeditions took place in 2012 and in 2017.

It was during that last expedition that marine archaeologists from the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities and Lund University in Sweden uncovered more treasures including pieces of a bronze statue and an encrusted bronze disk with four tabs on it that appeared almost like a cog wheel. That piece, called the Taurus disk because it bears the image of a bull, is the artifact that Haaretz identified as a possible part of the mechanism. But even the article backpedals, conceding, “It will be difficult to prove what exactly the Taurus disk is: part of the original Antikythera Mechanism, part of a second such mechanism, if one existed, or something else entirely.”

As Jamie Seidel at News.com.au reports, experts have not publicly suggested that the disk functioned as a cog wheel. Rather X-rays of the disk conducted last year revealed that image of the bull and the four holes. Following the excavation, Sarah Gibbens of National Geographic wrote that the small disk was “reminiscent” of the Antikythera Mechanism, but that expedition co-leader Aggeliki Simossi said it was unclear what its purpose was. “It is maybe decoration for furniture or maybe a seal, or it could be an instrument,” as Simossi told Gibbens. “It is very early to say.”

While Haaretz and others reported the bull image suggests the disc was used in the machine to predict the position of the constellation Taurus, it does not appear to be finely crafted enough function as a cog wheel in the precision machine. As Seidel reports, in a best-case scenario, it may have adorned the case the Antikythera Mechanism was housed in, but there is no proven relation to the device.

That does not mean other bits of the mechanism aren’t to be found in the wreck. In fact, the expedition re-examining the wreck, called Return to Antikythera, holds out the possibility that more bits and pieces of the machine, which some believe may have been two distinct devices, can be found.

Whatever the case, the machine was truly ahead of its time, and the world wouldn’t see such intricate mechanical work again for 1,000 years. While we don’t know all we’d like about the mechanism, we are learning more about the ship it sailed on. It was likely a massive Greek grain ship, one of the largest ancient ships ever found, as archaeologist Brendan Foley, who led the new expeditions, tells Haaretz. At the times of its sinking, which likely happened in a storm, it was probably full of grain, statues and wealthy passengers, perhaps one who clung to his prized gadget as he sank into the sea.

Leia também: Mysterious Disk Found in Ancient Greek Shipwreck – By Sarah Gibbens –  National Geographic – October 4, 2017

Vídeos no Youtube mostram o funcionamento do Mecanismo de Anticítera.

Para saber mais, um livro: JONES, A. A Portable Cosmos: Revealing the Antikythera Mechanism, Scientific Wonder of the Ancient World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 312 p. – ISBN 9780199739349.

Einstein

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Alice: “So how did you get so smart anyway?”

Albert: “I have no special talent, but I am very, very curious, Alice. All I do is ask questions, just like you do. Anybody can do that.” (Genius – A vida de Einstein)

Albert Einstein: 1879-1955

Recomendo:

:: A história de Albert Einstein – Documentário do History Channel sobre a vida de Albert Einstein. Vídeo no Youtube publicado em 2 de fevereiro de 2014.  Há outras opções no Youtube para este vídeo.

:: Dentro da Mente de Einstein – O Enigma do Tempo e Espaço – Documentário publicado no Youtube em 7 de dezembro de 2017. Este documentário está também na Netflix.

:: Genius – A vida de Einstein – Série do National Geographic em 10 episódios iniciada em 25 de abril de 2017. Pode ser encontrada na web.

Sci-Hub

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Em vez de abraçar as enormes oportunidades de negócio sugeridas pelo sucesso em outras indústrias (cinema, tv e música), a publicação acadêmica tenta frear alguns avanços por meio de liminares judiciais. Até que serviço razoáveis por um preço justo se tornem disponíveis (netflix, itunes, spotify), os sites piratas irão prevalecer, não importa quão forte a indústria seja no tribunal. Contanto que o Sci-Hub e Alexandra permaneçam fora da jurisdição ocidental, não há razão para o Sci-Hub encerrar sua operação (morenovski).

Sci-Hub domains inactive following court order – By Andrew Silver: 23 Nov 2017

Por que o Sci-Hub, o Pirate Bay dos artigos acadêmicos, não resolve o problema – By morenovski: Mar 11, 2016

Sci-Hub. O site que dá acesso gratuito a artigos científicos –  Por Karla Pequenino – IHU Online: 29/08/2018

6 Corporations Own the Media and Most Scientific Publications in the World – By: Gaia Staff | August 2nd , 2017

‘Oligarquía académica’: Cómo 6 compañías controlan las publicaciones científicas del mundo – RT: 10 ago 2015

The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era – PLOS ONE: June 10, 2015

The Majority of Science Publishing is Controlled by Just Six Companies – Waking Times: July 30, 2015

Harvard University says it can’t afford journal publishers’ prices – The Guardian: 24 Apr 2012

Preço de periódicos científicos é insustentável, anuncia Harvard – Ensino Superior: 26/04/2012

 

Leia Mais:
World Wide Science
Artigos científicos no arXiv

Escritores de ciência

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Uma lista legal para quem gosta de aprender. Confira.

The 50 Best Science Writers of All Time – OnlineCollege.org

Being a great science writer means not only being able to convey frequently complex ideas and theories: it also involves being able to write in a way that keeps readers, even those who aren’t experts in the field, engaged and wanting to learn more about the subject. It’s a delicate balance to attain, but there have been many throughout the years who’ve managed to do it, though some with more grace than others. We’ve compiled a list of some of these science writing greats that any student should check out.

. Astronomy, Cosmology and Astrophysics
Through the work of these authors, readers can explore the farthest reaches of our universe, gain a better understanding of our own solar system and grasp the rules which govern it all.

. Physics and Mathematics
Check out these authors to teach yourself about the rules of matter, motion and the particles that make up the universe as we know it.

. Biological Sciences
These authors will help students and science enthusiasts alike to learn more about how biological organisms form, grow and change over time.

. Evolution and Genetics
Here, you’ll find some of the biggest and best minds in evolutionary science and genetics who shared their thoughts and research with a wider audience.

. Zoology and Naturalism
Those who love to read about the natural world will appreciate these great science writers who focused their careers on promoting the understanding and preservation of it.

. Human Body
Through the great works of these science writers, you’ll explore the mysteries of the human body and mind.

. Multi-Topic
These gifted writers focus on different topics throughout their writing, touching on fields like evolution, technology and paleontology.

. Oldies but Goodies
If you want to take in some classic science writers, these are all excellent choices, showing you where great science writing has its roots.

Academia.edu

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Academia.edu é um site no qual acadêmicos partilham seus artigos e pesquisas.

Há muitos estudos bíblicos neste site. Visite.

Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The company’s mission is to accelerate the world’s research.

Academics use Academia.edu to share their research, monitor deep analytics around the impact of their research, and track the research of academics they follow. 37,066,999 academics have signed up to Academia.edu, adding 12,111,952 papers and 1,861,476 research interests. Academia.edu attracts over 36 million unique visitors a month.

Artigos científicos no arXiv

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arXiv: open access to 1,143,950 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics [May 6, 2016].

arXiv is an e-print service in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance and statistics. Submissions to arXiv should conform to Cornell University academic standards. arXiv is owned and operated by Cornell University, a private not-for-profit educational institution. arXiv is funded by Cornell University Library, the Simons Foundation and by the member institutions.

The arXiv is a repository of electronic preprints, known as e-prints, of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008, and hit a million by the end of 2014. By 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month.

O arXiv é um arquivo para preprints eletrônicos de artigos científicos nos campos da matemática, física, ciência da computação, biologia quantitativa e estatística que podem ser acessados via internet. Em muitos campos da matemática e da física, quase todos os artigos estão no arXiv. No final de 2014 já tinha alcançado a marca de 1 milhão de artigos e uma média de 8 mil novos textos por mês.

Pesquisar trabalhos acadêmicos via Microsoft

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Search 80 Million Academic Papers For Free

Em Gizmo’s Freeware – By rob.schifreen – Last update on 25th April, 2016 – 3:11pm

Microsoft’s academic search system contains details of more than 80 million articles, and you can view abstract information about all of them.  Many are also available as full-text PDF files to download. Others can be requested by email.

World Wide Science

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World Wide Science é um portal para pesquisa de milhões de trabalhos acadêmicos, parcialmente gratuitos. Está em várias línguas, inclusive em português.

World Wide Science is an online portal that lets you search millions of academic papers and journal articles. Multilingual World Wide Science provides real-time searching and translation of globally-dispersed multilingual scientific literature.

Diz o site:

World Wide Science is a global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals. World Wide Science accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world.
 

Multilingual World Wide Science provides real-time searching and translation of globally-dispersed multilingual scientific literature.

The World Wide Science Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for World Wide Science.

On behalf of the World Wide Science Alliance, World Wide Science was developed and is maintained by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), an element of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy.

Leia Mais:
Sci-Hub
A luta do Sci-Hub pela Ciência Livre
Qui télécharge sur Sci-Hub ? Tout le monde – Jacqueline Charpentier –  29 avril 2016
Who’s downloading pirated papers? Everyone – By John Bohannon – Science: Apr. 28, 2016
Sci-Hub, le Pirate Bay de la recherche scientifique, à nouveau privé de nom de domaine –  Le Monde: 05.05.2016

OASIS br

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O Portal Brasileiro de Acesso Aberto à Informação Científica – oasisbr é um mecanismo de busca multidisciplinar que permite o acesso gratuito à produção científica de autores vinculados a universidades e institutos de pesquisa brasileiros. Por meio do oasisbr é possível também realizar buscas em fontes de informação portuguesas.

A partir de uma única interface, é possível realizar buscas simultâneas em revistas científicas, repositórios institucionais, repositórios temáticos, bibliotecas digitais de teses e dissertações e outras fontes de informação de natureza científica e tecnológica ou academicamente orientada.

A sonda Rosetta

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A última quarta-feira, 12 de novembro de 2014, foi um dia para entrar na história!

No dia 12/11/2014, pela primeira vez, uma sonda espacial pousou em um cometa, a mais de 500 milhões de km da Terra.

A sonda Rosetta, da Agência Espacial Europeia, está estudando o cometa 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, que contém materiais restantes da formação do Sistema Solar, cuja idade é de 4,56 bilhões de anos, aproximadamente. A pesquisa ajudará a entender a formação de nosso sistema.

Por que o nome Rosetta? Confira aqui e aqui. E o módulo que pousou no cometa chama-se Philae.

Siga as notícias a partir de Robô liberado pela sonda Rosetta pousa em cometa, confirma agência e dos links desta página.

E não deixe de ler o artigo do astrônomo Cássio Barbosa sobre o pouso da Philae no cometa.

Mais notícias e fotos no site da Agência Espacial Europeia – ESA, especialmente aqui e aqui.

Versão em português de Portugal aqui.

Fontes: G1 e ESA.