O casamento de Oseias na pesquisa do século XX

Estou, nestes dias, lendo o livro do profeta Oseias com os estudantes do Segundo Ano de Teologia do CEARP. Uso como roteiro o meu livro A Voz Necessária: encontro com os profetas do século VIII a.C., disponível aqui para download gratuito.

A interpretação dos capítulos 1-3 de Oseias, a narrativa do casamento do profeta com Gomer, é especialmente complexa.

Um artigo interessante nesta área que li, ainda no ano passado, foi sobre Os 1-3 na pesquisa do século XX. Reproduzo o resumo e a conclusão do artigo.

 

KELLE, B. E. Hosea 1–3 in Twentieth-Century Scholarship. Currents in Biblical Research, 7.2, p. 179-216, 2009.

 

Abstract

Throughout the twentieth century, critical scholarship on the book of Hosea has focused overwhelmingly on the marriage metaphor in Hosea 1—3. Scholars often saw these chapters as establishing the primary interpretive issues for the message of the prophet and the book as a whole, although a lack of consensus concerning even the most basic exegetical issues remains. Newer studies have rightly pushed beyond this isolation of Hosea 1—3. This article surveys the major trends of the modern interpretation of these chapters, with particular attention to the second half of the twentieth century. From the early 1900s to the 1980s, critical works focused primarily on the biographical reconstruction of the prophet and his family life, as well as related historical and form-critical concerns. From the 1930s forward, such study was particularly concerned to read Hosea 1—3 against the background of a purported sexualized Baal cult in eighth-century Israel. Beginning in the 1980s, feminist-critical readings of Hosea 1—3 came to occupy a prominent position. In subsequent years, these concerns have been complemented by an emerging emphasis on metaphor theory, as well as newer kinds of literary, book-oriented, and socio-historical analyses. A follow-up article will treat recent scholarship on Hosea 4—14.

 

Resumo

Ao longo do século XX os estudos acadêmicos sobre o livro de Oseias concentraram-se predominantemente na metáfora do casamento em Os 1-3. Os estudiosos, com frequência, viam esses capítulos como estabelecendo as principais questões interpretativas para a mensagem do profeta e do livro como um todo, embora ainda Currents in Biblical Researchpersista a falta de consenso a respeito das questões exegéticas mais básicas. Novos estudos têm, com razão, tentado ir além desse isolamento de Os 1-3. Este artigo analisa as principais tendências da interpretação moderna desses capítulos, com especial atenção para a segunda metade do século XX. Do início do século XX até os anos 80, as pesquisas acadêmicas concentraram-se principalmente na reconstrução biográfica do profeta e em sua vida familiar, bem como em preocupações históricas e as questões relacionadas à crítica das formas. A partir da década de 30 a pesquisa preocupou-se particularmente em ler Os 1-3 contra o pano de fundo de um pretenso culto da fertilidade baalista no Israel do século VIII a.C. A partir dos anos 80 as leituras crítico feministas de Os 1-3 passaram a ocupar uma posição de destaque. Nos anos subsequentes essas preocupações foram complementadas por uma ênfase crescente na teoria da metáfora, bem como em novos tipos de análises literárias orientadas para análises sócio-históricas. Um artigo posterior tratará dos estudos recentes sobre Os 4-14.

 

Conclusion

It is clear that twentieth-century scholarship on Hosea 1–3 has addressed an exceptionally wide range of questions and employed various methodological approaches that often reflected the changing trends within biblical studies in general. While recent scholarship continues to pay much attention to more traditional issues like form-critical analysis, biographical reconstruction, and religio-cultic interpretation, several new modes of investigation have opened innovative avenues into the meaning and significance of these complex chapters. Among these approaches, the use of metaphor theory to engage the nature and function of the text’s metaphors seems likely to continue to occupy the prominent position. Such analyses will surely employ metaphor study for a variety of ends, however, including offering new perspectives on gender for the text and its readers (e.g., Baumann 2003), and providing new reconstructions of the religious situation in Hosea’s day that move beyond the older Baalism versus Yahwism framework into a more complex picture of the social and religious realities that stand behind the text’s imagery (see Chalmers 2007).

Among the newest trends that show promise of development in the coming years is an emphasis on synchronic and final form readings not only of Hosea 1–3, but also of these chapters’ place within the larger context of the book of Hosea as a whole. Building on some previous works that move in this direction (Landy 1995; Abma 1999), one is beginning to hear the call for more sustained and coherent literary readings and even book-oriented interpretations of the discourse in Hosea 1–3. Witness the newest commentary on Hosea by Ben Zvi (2005) and its emphasis upon viewing Hosea 1–3 as one of many didactic sets of readings that function within an intentionally crafted prophetic ‘book’ designed to socialize the elite literati of Yehud in the postmonarchic period. At a similar but broader level, some newer studies show increasing interest in interpreting Hosea 1–3, and indeed the whole book of Hosea, within the context of the Book of the Twelve (e.g., Sweeney 2000; Bowman 2006).

Above all, the approach taken in several recent studies, which innovatively uses and combines various methodological perspectives, holds much promise for the future study of Hosea 1–3. These kinds of integrative analyses combine metaphorical study with feminist, materialist, anthropological, and rhetorical perspectives to yield exciting new insights into the dynamics of the text (see Keefe 2001; Yee 2003; Kelle 2005). Such integrative approaches, especially, in my view, the use of rhetorical criticism to engage Hosea 1–3 and its metaphors in interlocking literary, historical, and comparative contexts and as functioning persuasively in particular rhetorical contexts, allow us to approach the text anew in light of developing notions of prophetic discourse in general and social, political, anthropological, and religious realities in particular. Rather than simplifying the meaning(s) of Hosea 1–3, however, future study along these lines promises to produce a diversity of interpretations that accurately reflects the complexity of the chapters themselves.

 

Conclusão

Está claro que a pesquisa do século XX sobre Os 1-3 abordou uma gama excepcionalmente ampla de questões e empregou várias abordagens metodológicas que frequentemente refletiam as tendências mutáveis ​​nos estudos bíblicos em geral. Enquanto os estudos recentes continuam a prestar muita atenção a questões mais tradicionais, como a crítica das formas, a reconstrução biográfica e a interpretação religioso-cultual, vários novos modos de investigação abriram caminhos inovadores para o significado desses complexos capítulos. Entre essas abordagens o uso da teoria da metáfora para debater a natureza e a função das metáforas do texto parece continuar a ocupar posição de destaque. Tais análises certamente empregarão o estudo de metáforas para uma variedade de fins, incluindo oferecer novas perspectivas de gênero para o texto e seus leitores e fornecer novas reconstruções da situação religiosa nos dias de Oseias que se movem para além do antigo enquadramento baalismo versus javismo em um retrato mais complexo das realidades sociais e religiosas que estão por trás do imaginário do texto.

Entre as tendências mais recentes que apresentam uma promessa de desenvolvimento nos próximos anos está uma ênfase nas leituras formais e sincrônicas não apenas de Os 1-3, mas também do lugar desses capítulos dentro do contexto mais amplo do livro de Oseias como um todo. Com base em alguns trabalhos anteriores que se movem nessa direção, começa-se a ouvir o apelo por leituras literárias mais sustentadas e coerentes e até mesmo interpretações do discurso orientadas por livros, em Os 1-3. Seja testemunha um comentário sobre Oseias de Ben Zvi, de 2005, e sua insistência em ver Os 1-3 como um dos muitos conjuntos didáticos de leituras que funcionam dentro de um “livro” profético projetado intencionalmente para socializar os letrados da elite de Yehud na época pós-monárquica. Em um nível semelhante, mas mais amplo, alguns estudos mais recentes mostram interesse crescente em interpretar Os 1-3 e, de fato, todo o livro de Oseias, no contexto do Livro dos Doze.

Acima de tudo, a abordagem adotada em vários estudos recentes, que utiliza de maneira inovadora e combina várias perspectivas metodológicas, é muito promissora para o futuro estudo de Os 1-3. Esses tipos de análises integrativas combinam o estudo metafórico com perspectivas feministas, materialistas, antropológicas e retóricas para produzir novos insights interessantes sobre a dinâmica do texto. Tais abordagens integrativas, especialmente, em minha opinião, o uso da crítica retórica para debater Os 1-3 e suas metáforas em contextos literários, históricos e comparativos interligados e seu funcionamento em contextos retóricos particulares, nos permitem abordar o texto de novo à luz do desenvolvimento de noções de discurso profético em geral e realidades sociais, políticas, antropológicas e religiosas em particular. Porém, em vez de simplificar o (s) significado (s) de Os 1-3, estudos futuros ao longo dessas linhas prometem produzir uma diversidade de interpretações que possam refletir com precisão a complexidade dos próprios capítulos.

Brad E. Kelle – Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California.

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Por que os livros de Amós e Oseias foram escritos?

Recursos para os estudos joaninos

Vi a dica em Larry Hurtado’s Blog: New Resource of Johannine Studies – May 18, 2019

Ele indica

LIEU, J. M. ; DE BOER, M. C. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Johannine Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 496 p. – ISBN 9780198739982.

LIEU, J. M. ; DE BOER, M. C. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Johannine Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 496 p.

:. Offers a comprehensive introduction to current scholarship on the Gospel and Letters of John

:. Features chapters written by leading researchers in the field covering major issues of background, ways of reading, style, and theology

:. Provides an authoritative guide for non-specialists and those in the early stages of study of the Johannine Literature, as well as offering new insights to stimulate further thought for those more familiar with the field

:. Suggestions for further reading and full bibliographies of works cited enable readers to pursue their interests further

The contribution of the Johannine literature to the development of Christian theology, and particularly to Christology, is uncontested, although careful distinction between the implications of its language, especially that of sonship, in a first century ‘Jewish’ context and in the subsequent theological controversies of the early Church has been particularly important if not always easily sustained. Recent study has shaken off the weight of subsequent Christian appropriation of Johannine language which has sometimes made readers immune to the ambiguities and challenging tensions in its thought. The Oxford Handbook of Johannine Studies begins with chapters concentrating on discussions of the background and context of the Johannine literature, leading to the different ways of reading the text, and thence to the primary theological themes within them, before concluding with some discussion of the reception of the Johannine literature in the early church. Inevitably, given their different genres and levels of complexity, some chapters pay most if not all attention to the Gospel, whereas others are more able to give a more substantial place to the letters. All the contributors have themselves made significant contributions to their topic. They have sought to give a balanced introduction to the relevant scholarship and debate, but they have also been able to present the issues from their own perspective. The Handbook will help those less familiar with the Johannine literature to get a sense of the major areas of debate and why the field continues to be one of vibrant and exciting study, and that those who are already part of the conversation will find new insights to enliven their own on-going engagement with these writings.

Sobre Oxford Handbooks Online já falei aqui.

Características literárias e linguísticas da Bíblia Hebraica

RENDSBURG, G. A. How the Bible Is Written. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2019, 675 p. – ISBN 9781683071976

RENDSBURG, G. A. How the Bible Is Written. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2019, 675 p. - ISBN 9781683071976

O objetivo deste livro é aproximar os leitores interessados do texto original da Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento e proporcionar-lhes uma apreciação maior de sua arte literária e linguística. Em suma, este livro trata muito mais do modo como a Bíblia diz o que diz do que daquilo que diz.

The goal of How the Bible Is Written is to bring interested readers–scholars and laypeople alike–closer to the original text of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament and to provide them with a greater appreciation of its literary artistry and linguistic virtuosity. In short, this book focuses not so much on what the Bible says as how the Bible says it. A book focusing on the nexus between language and literature in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, with specific attention to how the former is used to create the latter; topics include wordplay, wordplay with proper names, alliteration, repetition with variation, dialect representation, intentionally confused language, marking closure, and more.

The first paragraph of my new book reads as follows: “Learned colleagues have written books entitled Who Wrote the Bible?, How to Read the Bible, How the Bible Became a Book, and How the Bible Became Holy. The present volume poses a different question, How the Bible Is Written. My goal in this book is to reveal the manner in which language is used to produce exquisite literature, no less for the ancient Israelite literati who crafted the compositions that eventually were canonized as the Bible than for William Shakespeare or Jane Austen or J. R. R. Tolkien or any other writer whose literature we admire and continue to enjoy. Which is to say, in the most simple of terms: there are many books on what the Bible says; this is a book on how the Bible says it”.

Uma avaliação do livro feita por Jim West pode ser lida em seu blog Zwinglius Redivivus.

Gary A. Rendsburg é Professor de História Judaica na Universidade de Rutgers, Nova Jérsei, Estados Unidos.

Catálogo dos artigos da REB, RIBLA e Estudos Bíblicos

O professor Jair Carlesso, do Itepa Faculdades (Faculdade de Teologia e Ciências Humanas – Passo Fundo – RS) catalogou os artigos bíblicos das revistas REB, RIBLA e Estudos Bíblicos, da Vozes.

Estudos Bíblicos n. 1 - 1984

Esta catalogação contempla artigos de Bíblia das revistas:

EB – Estudos Bíblicos: do n. 1 (Março/Maio 1984) ao n. 137 (Janeiro/Março 2018)

REB – Revista Eclesiástica Brasileira: do v. 26, fasc.1 (1966) ao v. 77, n. 308 (2017)

RIBLA – Revista de Interpretação Bíblica Latino-Americana: n. 1 a 68; 73 a 76

Confira online em Bibliografia Bíblica Latino-Americana – 10 de outubro de 2018

Ou acesse e baixe o arquivo em pdf aqui.

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Paulo e seus escritos na blogosfera

James F. McGrath, Professor de Língua e Literatura do Novo Testamento na Universidade Butler em Indianápolis, Indiana, publicou hoje em seu blog um apanhado do que andam falando sobre Paulo e seus escritos na blogosfera.

Paul around the Blogosphere – April 30, 2019 by James F. McGrath

Ele diz: Here is a collection of blog posts related to Paul and his writings that I hope you’ll enjoy!

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Novo Testamento no Observatório Bíblico

Os filhos de Deus em Gênesis 6,1-4

 Artigo e livro sobre um texto difícil do Antigo Testamento: Gn 6, 1-4.

Um artigo:

Those Elusive Sons of God: Genesis 6:1–4 Revisited – By Jaap Doedens – The Bible and Interpretation – April 2019

Since the beginning of the 20th century, and especially after the numerous discoveries of similar expressions in extrabiblical texts, mainstream exegesis returned to a ‘superhuman’ interpretation of the ‘sons of God’ in Gen 6:1–4. Yet now they were not viewed as (fallen) angels, but as ‘divine beings’, or deities (…) This newer exegetical solution is most probably the correct one.

Is it possible to discover an historical kernel of this narrative about marriages of divine beings and human women resulting in the birth of giant heroes? The origin of this narrative could perhaps be connected with the presence of megalithic tombs, mainly in the Transjordan region, the so called dolmens, dating from the end of the third and the beginning of the second millennium BCE. It is reasonable  that, because of their mere size, these monumental structures gave rise to tales about giant fallen warriors. Somehow, one of these tales made its way into the biblical narrative, and became part of a theological framework elucidating humanity’s fate with all its trial and error.

Um livro:

DOEDENS, J.  The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4: Analysis and History of Exegesis. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 372 p. – ISBN 9789004284265.

DOEDENS, J.  The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4: Analysis and History of Exegesis. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 372 p. - ISBN 9789004284265

In The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4, Jaap Doedens offers an overview of the history of exegesis of the enigmatic text about the ‘sons of God’, the ‘daughters of men’, and the ‘giants’. First, he analyzes the text of Gen 6:1–4. Subsequently, he tracks the different exegetical proposals from the earliest exegesis until those of modern times. He further provides the reader with an evaluation of the meaning of the expression ‘sons of God’ in the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East. In the last chapter, he concentrates on the message and function of Gen 6:1–4. This volume comprehensively gathers ancient and modern exegetical attempts, providing the means for an ongoing dialogue about this essentially complex and elusive passage.

Sumário

Acknowledgments
Abbreviations

1 Setting the Course: Introduction
 1 From Boulder to Keystone to Stumbling Block
 2 The Mainstream Solutions
 3 Approach

2 A Quest for Meaning: Analyzing Genesis 6:1–4
 1 Introduction
 2 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:1
 3 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:2
 4 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:3
 5 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:4
 6 Content and Context: General Observations Relating to Genesis 6:1–4
 7 Dramatis Personae: Provisional Conclusions Related to Genesis 6:1–4

3 Trodden Paths: History of Exegesis of the Expression ‘Sons of God’
 1 Introduction
 2 The Ancient Versions
 3 Philo of Alexandria
 4 Flavius Josephus
 5 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
 6 Dead Sea Scrolls
 7 Rabbinic Tradition
 8 New Testament
 9 The Church Fathers
 10 Late Middle Ages and Reformation
 11 Newer Exegesis
 12 Conclusions to the History of Exegesis

4 At the Crossroads: Weighing Exegetical Solutions
 1 Introduction
 2 The Heavenly Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Angels
 3 The Social Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Mighty-Ones
 4 The Religious Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Sethites
 5 The Mythological Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Divine Beings
 6 Minor Variants and Combinations
 7 Conclusions

5 Perspectives: The Functions of Genesis 6:1–4
 1 Introduction
 2 ‘Sons of God’ and Biblical Monotheism
 3 Genesis 6:1–4 and Myth in the Old Testament
 4 Truth Claim and Functions of Genesis 6:1–4
 5 Final Observations
Bibliography
Index of Ancient Sources

Jaap Doedens, Ph.D. Kampen Theological University (2013), Pápa Reformed Theological Seminary, Pápa, Hungary, is college associate professor at the latter seminary. He has published articles on the Old Testament, the intertestamental period, and the New Testament in English, Dutch, and Hungarian

Leia mais sobre Gn 6,1-4 em Remnant of Giants.

Uma abordagem crítica da história da Palestina

HJELM, I. ; TAHA, H. ; PAPPE, I. ; THOMPSON, T. L. (eds.) A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine: Palestine History and Heritage Project 1. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 400 p. – ISBN 9780367146375.  

HJELM, I. ; TAHA, H. ; PAPPE, I. ; THOMPSON, T. L. (eds.) A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine: Palestine History and Heritage Project 1. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019

A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine offers a comprehensive, evidence-based history of Palestine with a critical use of recent historical, archaeological and anthropological methods. This history is not an exclusive history, but one that is ethnically and culturally inclusive, a history of and for all peoples who have lived in Palestine. After an introductory essay offering a strategy for creating coherence and continuity from the earliest beginnings to the present, the volume presents twenty articles from 22 contributors, 16 of whom are of Middle Eastern origin or relation.

Split thematically into four parts, the volume discusses ideology, national identity and chronology in various historiographies of Palestine and the legacy of memory and oral history; the transient character of ethnicity in Palestine, and questions regarding the ethical responsibilities of archaeologists and historians to protect the multi-ethnic cultural heritage of Palestine; landscape and memory, and the values of community archaeology and bio-archaeology; and an exploration of the “ideology of the land” and its influence on Palestine’s history and heritage.

The first in a series of books under the auspices of the Palestine History and Heritage Project (PaHH), the volume offers a challenging new departure for writing the history of Palestine and Israel throughout the ages. A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine explores the diverse history of the region against the backdrop of twentieth century scholarly construction of the history of Palestine as a history of a Jewish homeland, with roots in an ancient, biblical Israel, and examines the implications of this ancient and recent history for archaeology and cultural heritage. The book offers a fascinating new perspective for students and academics in the fields of anthropological, political, cultural and biblical history.

Publicação prevista para junho de 2019.