As Regras da Comunidade de Qumran

HEMPEL, C. The Community Rules from Qumran: A Commentary. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020, 371 p. – ISBN 9783161570261

Charlotte Hempel oferece, neste volume, o primeiro comentário abrangente sobre todos os doze manuscritos antigos das Regras da Comunidade, obras que contêm asHEMPEL, C. The Community Rules from Qumran: A Commentary. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020 descrições mais importantes da organização e dos valores atribuídos ao movimento associado aos Manuscritos do Mar Morto. A cópia mais bem preservada deste trabalho (1QS) foi um dos primeiros manuscritos a ser publicado e ainda domina a avaliação acadêmica das Regras. A abordagem adotada neste comentário é capturar a natureza distinta de cada um dos manuscritos com base em uma tradução sinótica que apresenta todos os manuscritos em um só olhar. Notas textuais e comentários lidam com a imagem derivada de todos os manuscritos preservados. A publicação dos manuscritos da Gruta 4 em 1998 pode ser comparada a uma erupção vulcânica que desafiou as noções predominantes das Regras da Comunidade que foram fundadas no status quase arquetípico da cópia da Gruta 1 publicada em 1951. Desde então, a fumaça se dissipou e, conforme as peças começam a se acomodar, vemos brotos verdes emergindo no debate acadêmico. Este comentário abrange a paisagem pós-vulcânica das Regras da Comunidade, que é cuidadosamente peneirada em busca de pistas para estabelecer uma nova leitura do material em conversa com o últimas pesquisas sobre os pergaminhos. A evidência sugere que algumas das práticas descritas como o coração pulsante da organização do movimento refletem as aspirações de uma subelite privilegiada do final do Período do Segundo Templo.

In this volume, Charlotte Hempel offers the first comprehensive commentary on all twelve ancient manuscripts of the Rules of the Community, works which contain the most important descriptions of the organisation and values ascribed to the movement associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls. The best preserved copy of this work (1QS) was one of the first scrolls to be published and has long dominated the scholarly assessment of the Rules. The approach adopted in this commentary is to capture the distinctive nature of each of the manuscripts based on a synoptic translation that presents all the manuscripts at a glance. Textual notes and Commentary deal with the picture derived from all preserved manuscripts. The publication of the Cave 4 manuscripts in 1998 can be likened to a volcanic eruption that challenged prevalent notions of the Community Rules that were founded on the quasi-archetypal status of the Cave 1 copy published in 1951. Since then the smoke has lifted and, as the pieces have begun to settle, we see green shoots emerging in the scholarly debate.. This commentary embraces the post-volcanic landscape of the Community Rules, which is carefully sifted for clues to establish a fresh reading of the material in conversation with the latest research on the Scrolls. The evidence suggests that some of the practices described as the beating heart of the movement’s organization reflect the aspirations of a privileged sub-elite from the late Second Temple Period.

Charlotte Hempel: Professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Birmingham, UK.

Os Manuscritos do Mar Morto na pesquisa recente

The Dead Sea Scrolls in Recent Scholarship: A Public Conference: May 17 – 20, 2020

Gravações completas da conferência pública, Os Manuscritos do Mar Morto na pesquisa recente, realizada virtualmente de 17 a 20 de maio de 2020. As gravações são divididas por sessão. Como alguns oradores não quiseram ser gravados, suas apresentações foram omitidas.The Dead Sea Scrolls in Recent Scholarship

We are pleased to share the full recordings from the Dead Sea Scrolls in Recent Scholarship: A Public Conference, which took place virtually on May 17-20, 2020. The recordings, found below, are broken down by session. Please note that some speakers declined to be recorded, so these presentations were omitted.

The conference was generously sponsored by NYU, Global Network for Advanced Research in Jewish Studies & the Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies; Friends of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Leia mais sobre os Manuscritos do Mar Morto aqui e aqui.

Slides de Qumran por Philip Davies

Philip Davies’ Qumran Slide Collection (1970-71) now available

Qumran (1970-71). Fr. Roland de Vaux demonstrating how clothing was laundered at Qumran, where items were washed and patted dry on flat stone.  From the collection of Professor Philip Davies, Emeritus Professor at the University of Sheffield

DQCAAS is extremely grateful to the late Prof. Philip R. Davies for generously making available to us his slide collection of Qumran. These slides were taken in 1970-71 when he was a doctoral student in Jerusalem, working on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Travelling Scholar at the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (now the Kenyon Institute). These slides include a remarkable picture of Fr. Roland de Vaux explaining how the people of Qumran washed their laundry.

Philip Davies, Emeritus Professor at Sheffield University and Chair of the Palestine Exploration Fund, was one of our key supporters.  He is a towering figure in the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and author of a book that engages with the archaeology of the site of Qumran and its environs: Qumran (Cities of the Biblical World; Guildford: Lutterworth Press/Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982). He was co-founder and director of Sheffield Academic Press and founding editor of the Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, and Professor Emeritus of Sheffield University, were he worked since 1975.

Philip laid out the slides on the Palestine Exploration Fund lightbox on 13 September, 2017, as shown in this image taken by Sandra Jacobs, DQCAAS Network Facilitator and Researcher. Philip died peacefully at home on 31 May, 2018, as he dearly wished, after being diagnosed with cancer, which was terminal, only two weeks earlier. He had successfully fought off a previous cancer in 2016, and was at the time this photograph taken and through to May unaware of being ill and happily looking forward to retirement from the PEF, with all kinds of ideas for future projects and more time for other things. His contribution to and enthusiasm for DQCAAS as been very much appreciated, and we are really sorry he could not see it flower further.

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Sobre o significado dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto

Não há melhor momento para refletirmos sobre o significado dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto do que agora, logo após  a celebração do 70º aniversário de sua descoberta.

Mas quantas pessoas podem realmente explicar o que os Manuscritos do Mar Morto são e o que eles significam para nós?

A reflection on the significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls – By Lawrence H. Schiffman – The Jerusalem Report: July 23, 2018

What better time to reflect on the significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls than now, soon after celebrating their 70th anniversary? This corpus of ancient manuscripts has awakened immense interest, spawned an entire new field of scholarship, and reshaped our understanding of biblical studies, the history of Judaism and the background of Christianity. The scrolls have been at the center of their share of intrigue, legal action and even humor. Exhibits such as that taking place right now in Denver, under the auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), are more than ample evidence of the tremendous interest in the scrolls. But how many people can actually explain what the scrolls are and what they should mean to us?

Leia Mais:
Manuscritos do Mar Morto no Observatório Bíblico
Os essênios: a racionalização da solidariedade

Textos de Manuscritos do Mar Morto lidos com infravermelho

Análises recentes com infravermelho possibilitaram a leitura de textos invisíveis em pequenos fragmentos de Manuscritos do Mar Morto que pareciam, a olho nu, estar em branco.

Leia a notícia em inglês e português.

Fragmento do Deuteronômio (11Q3), à direita, visto com infravermelho, à esquerda

Hidden Text Found on ‘Blank’ Dead Sea Scrolls – By Laura Geggel – Live Science: May 3, 2018

Previously hidden text on fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls is now readable, revealing a possible undiscovered scroll and solving a debate about the sacred Temple Scroll. The discoveries came from a new infrared analysis of the artifacts, the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) announced yesterday (May 1). The newfound writing came from the books of Deuteronomy and Leviticus, which are in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Old Testament of the Christian Bible), and the Book of Jubilees, a text written at the same time as the Hebrew Bible that was never incorporated into the biblical books, the archaeologists said. Researchers presented the newly revealed words at an international conference, called “The Dead Sea Scrolls at Seventy: Clear a Path in the Wilderness,” in Israel.

Também aqui.

Arqueólogos encontram trechos escondidos nos Manuscritos do Mar Morto – Galileu: 04/05/2018

Texto das escrituras hebraicas foi encontrado depois de análise com infravermelho

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Manuscritos do Mar Morto no Observatório Bíblico

Uma introdução aos Manuscritos do Mar Morto

BROOKE, G. J. ; HEMPEL, C. T&T Clark Companion to the Dead Sea Scrolls. London: Bloomsbury, 2018, 512 p. – ISBN 9780567352057

BROOKE, G. J. ; HEMPEL, C. T&T Clark Companion to the Dead Sea Scrolls. London: Bloomsbury, 2018, 512 p.

In 30 concise articles all of the key texts and documents are examined. A section on the complex methods used in anaylzing the scrolls then follows before the focus moves to consideration of the scrolls in their various contexts; political, religious, cultural, economic, historical. The genres ascribed to groups of texts within the scrolls are examined in the next section with due attention given to both past and present scholarship. The main body of the companion then concludes with crucial issues and topics discussed by leading scholars. The book finishes with appendices and indexes giving: timelines, lists of kings, family trees of the Seleucids, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, lists of places and scrolls, information on electronic resources and classified bibliographies. The volume is illustrated throughout with some 60 images enabling readers to consider key texts from the scrolls not only in transcription but simultaneously with photographs.

George J. Brooke is Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the University of Manchester, UK. Charlotte Hempel is a Reader in Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Birmingham, UK.

Manuscritos do Mar Morto: simpósio em Jerusalém

An International Symposium: The Dead Sea Scrolls at Seventy: “Clear a Path in the Wilderness”

Date: 29 April–3 May, 2018

Conveners: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of Vienna, New York University, the Israel Antiquities Authority, The Israel Museum

Venues: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and The Israel Museum

To mark seventy years since the initial discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, an international symposium will be held in Jerusalem, April 29–May 3, 2018. The overarching symposium theme will be “The Wilderness”—as a real place; as the location of biblical episodes, most notably during the formative years of Israel’s wandering from Egypt to the Promised Land; as a motif; and as a concept (sometimes idealized, sometimes demonized).

The wilderness figures prominently in biblical texts and in the literature of the Second Temple, rabbinic, early Christian, and early Islamic periods. It was also a place of habitation by various groups during these periods, which have left us archaeological sites, artefacts, documents and the more than 1500 Dead Sea Scrolls. Conference papers may address any aspect of the wilderness as it relates to Qumran; other Judean Desert sites; the Dead Sea Scrolls; and the associated late antique literatures, cultures and religions—particularly, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Papers may focus on such topics as the reception of biblical figures (e.g., Moses, Aaron, Phineas, Miriam, Balaam), events (e.g., the giving of the law, the sin of the golden calf, the building of the tabernacle, covenant ceremonies), and themes (e.g., revelation, law, covenant, rebellion against God, sanctuary, water, and manna) connected with Israel’s time in the wilderness; relevant textual and philological analyses; the use of the relevant biblical passages in shaping later texts; the influence of the desert climate, flora, and fauna on the ancient texts and their state of preservation.

The conference will feature invited lectures; open sessions; and two public lectures.

Papers will be accepted for the open sessions in accordance with the relevance of the topic to the overall program. Please send a proposal of no more than 250 words to the Orion Center email address (orioncenter@mail.huji.ac.il). Deadline for receipt of proposals is September 20, 2017; responses will be mailed by October 31.

Symposium organizers:

  • Esther Chazon, Director, The Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem;
  • Armin Lange, Professor of Second Temple Judaism and Director of the Institute for Jewish Studies, University of Vienna;
  • Lawrence H. Schiffman, Judge Abraham Lieberman Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New York University;
  • Pnina Shor, Curator and Head of Dead Sea Scrolls Projects, The Israel Antiquities Authority;
  • Adolfo D. Roitman, Lizbeth and George Krupp Curator of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Head of The Shrine of the Book, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

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Manuscritos do Mar Morto: 70 anos
Manuscritos do Mar Morto

Descoberta a 12ª gruta de Qumran

Mas sem manuscritos, que devem ter sido retirados do local em meados do século XX.

Hebrew University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea Scrolls Cave

08/02/2017

Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Oren Gutfeld: “This is one of the most exciting archaeological discoveries, and the most important in the last 60 years, in the caves of Qumran.”

Excavations in a cave on the cliffs west of Qumran, near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, prove that Dead Sea scrolls from the Second Temple period were hidden in the cave, and were looted by Bedouins in the middle of the last century. With the discovery of this cave, scholars now suggest that it should be numbered as Cave 12. [Photo links below]

The surprising discovery, representing a milestone in Dead Sea Scroll research, was made by Dr. Oren Gutfeld and Ahiad Ovadia from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute of Archaeology, with the collaboration of Dr. Randall Price and students from Liberty University in Virginia, USA.

The excavators are the first in over 60 years to discover a new scroll cave and to properly excavate it.

The excavation was supported by the Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria, by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), and is a part of the new “Operation Scroll” launched at the IAA by its Director-General, Mr. Israel Hasson, to undertake systematic surveys and to excavate the caves in the Judean Desert.

Excavation of the cave revealed that at one time it contained Dead Sea scrolls. Numerous storage jars and lids from the Second Temple period were found hidden in niches along the walls of the cave and deep inside a long tunnel at its rear. The jars were all broken and their contents removed, and the discovery towards the end of the excavation of a pair of iron pickaxe heads from the 1950s (stored within the tunnel for later use) proves the cave was looted.

Until now, it was believed that only 11 caves had contained scrolls. With the discovery of this cave, scholars have now suggested that it would be numbered as Cave 12. Like Cave 8, in which scroll jars but no scrolls were found, this cave will receive the designation Q12 (the Q=Qumran standing in front of the number to indicate no scrolls were found).

Continua… 

E há fotos no final do texto.

Sobre a descoberta das 11 primeiras grutas, leia aqui.

Manuscritos do Mar Morto: 70 anos

This year marks the seventieth anniversary of the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.  What have we learned over the past three score and ten?  (Timothy Lim, The Dead Sea Scrolls at Seventy – CSCO Blog: 18th January 2017)

Comemoramos em 2017 o aniversário de 70 anos da descoberta dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto. O que nós aprendemos ao longo destes anos?

LIM, T. H. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. 2. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 168 p. – ISBN 9780198779520.

LIM, T. H. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. 2. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 168 p.

Since their discovery in 1947, the Dead Sea Scrolls have become an icon in popular culture that transcends their status as ancient Jewish manuscripts. Everyone has heard of the Scrolls, but amidst the conspiracies, the politics, and the sensational claims, it can be difficult to separate the myths from the reality.

In this Very Short introductions, Timothy Lim discusses the cultural significance of the finds, and the religious, political and legal controversies during the seventy years of study since the discovery. He also looks at the contribution the Scrolls have made to our understanding of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible, and the origins of early Christianity. Exploring the most recent scholarly discussions on the archaeology of Khirbet Qumran, and the study of the biblical texts, the canon, and the history of the Second Temple Period, he considers what the scrolls reveal about sectarianism in early Judaism. Was the archaeological site of Qumran a centre of monastic life, a fortress, a villa, or a pottery factory? Why were some of their biblical texts so different from the ones that we read today? Did they have ‘a Bible’? Who were the Essenes and why did they think that humanity is to be divided between ‘the sons of light’ and those in darkness? And, finally, do the Scrolls reflect the teachings of the earliest followers of Jesus?

Sobre o Autor
Timothy H. Lim is Professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Period at New College, The University of Edinburgh. He has written several books and numerous articles on the Dead Sea Scrolls, including The Formation of the Jewish Canon (Yale University Press, 2013), and he co-edited The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls (OUP, 2010), with John J. Collins. He is the General Editor of The Oxford Commentary on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Professor Lim is a renowned authority on Biblical and Jewish Studies and recently delivered the Chuen King Memorial lectures at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in China.

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Os essênios: a racionalização da solidariedade

Situação atual dos estudos sobre Qumran

Li hoje no blog de Michael F. Bird, Euangelion, um post interessante, que começa assim:

There is a lengthy review by James H. Charlesworth over at RBL on a new book about Qumran and the Scrolls. But in the review, Charlesworth sums up what he thinks are the six basic conclusions most Qumranologists would concur about.

Ele comenta que na resenha do livro de David Stacey e Gregory Doudna, Qumran Revisited: A Reassessment of the Archaeology of the Site and Its Texts. Oxford: Archeopress, 2013, 150 p. – ISBN 9781407311388, James H. Charlesworth, do Princeton Theological Seminary, uma autoridade no assunto, enumera seis pontos em que há consenso entre os qumranistas.

Consenso na área de estudos sobre Qumran e os Manuscritos do Mar Morto é uma coisa hoje bastante rara. A resenha foi publicada em 01.06.2015 na RBL.

Charlesworth diz no final da longa resenha de 18 páginas:

  1. Qumran existia durante a época dos Macabeus, ou seja, antes do ano 100 a.C.
  2. Os Manuscritos de Qumran e a arqueologia devem ser investigados conjuntamente, em uma análise da história de Qumran e de sua arqueologia sem falsos pressupostos
  3. ‘Ain Feshkha [uma fonte próxima] está relacionada com Qumran
  4. Alguns dos Manuscritos de Qumran (talvez menos de 10 entre os quase mil recuperados apenas em fragmentos) foram compostos em Qumran ou ali editados
  5. Uma das salas pode ser identificada como um “scriptorium”
  6. O ramo celibatário e mais rigoroso dos essênios viveu muito provavelmente em Qumran.

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Os essênios: a racionalização da solidariedade