Bali, 40 Graus

Blog “Bali, 40 Graus” acompanha conferência da ONU sobre o clima

O caderno de Ciência da Folha de S. Paulo lançou nesta terça-feira o blog Bali, 40 Graus, criado especialmente para a 13ª Conferência das Partes da Convenção do Clima das Nações Unidas, que acontece na Indonésia. Escrito por Claudio Angelo, o blog relatará o dia-a-dia do encontro que tenta determinar as bases de um compromisso mundial que substitua o Protocolo de Kyoto, que expira em 2012. Claudio Angelo, 32, é editor de Ciência da Folha. Jornalista formado pela Universidade de São Paulo, cobre assuntos de ciência e ambiente desde 1998…


Fonte: Folha Online: 04/12/2007 – 18h54

Filha de John Strugnell escreve sobre o pai

Em um post de Jim West, de ontem, aborrecido com o silêncio da grande imprensa sobre pessoas realmente importantes para a humanidade, como John Strugnell, que morreu no dia 30 de novembro – acontecimento ignorado pelos grandes jornais norte-americanos, ingleses e israelenses e só divulgado pelos blogs – foi deixado um comentário de Anne-Christine Strugnell, uma das filhas do estudioso dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto.

Um belo necrológio, que Jim West publicou como post hoje em Obituary of John Strugnell – By His Daughter [Necrológio de John Strugnell – Por sua filha].

Vale a pena ler [Obs.: blog falecido, link sepultado: 22.03.2008].

Arqueologia e política em Jerusalém

Já em 10 de fevereiro deste ano, no post O tom político da arqueologia em Jerusalém, eu citava, de artigo publicado na BBC News: …Here history, religion and politics meet. Nothing in Jerusalem can be understood without all three.

 

Pois é: a polêmica continua. Veja este ensaio.

Digging Into Jerusalem

Daniel Luria likes to refer to himself as a “holy real-estate agent.” As a fund-raiser for Israel’s right-wing Ateret Cohanim organization, he considers it his mission to persuade Jews to settle in predominantly Arab East Jerusalem. As he walks with a NEWSWEEK reporter through the Muslim quarter of the Old City, he turns a corner and the glittering gold Dome of the Rock rises into view. “This is a drawcard street,” he says, gesturing down the corridor. “It’s always a winner.” He stops at a bustling, Jewish-owned construction site just steps from the Islamic prayer house, peers past a coil of barbed wire, and points to a dark cavity below the building’s floor. Underneath, he explains, archeologists hired by the owner have unearthed stretches of a late-Roman street and parts of an Ottoman bathhouse. “If you can expose your roots, why shouldn’t you go down to the bedrock?” he asks. “From a Jewish ideological perspective, it’s a must.”

In the apartment next door, however, Fatma Asala doesn’t share Luria’s enthusiasm for archeology. The 33-year-old Muslim schoolteacher points to a web of cracks in her bedroom ceiling and complains that the rumble of the compressors next door shakes the whole house. Sometimes, she insists, it sounds as if the clang and whirr of the power tools is coming from directly beneath her floor. Occasionally she wakes up and finds her face covered with a thin layer of concrete dust and flecks of white paint that have fallen from her ceiling. (She calls it her “morning makeup.”) For now, she explains, the excavation is a mere inconvenience. Yet she knows from experience that even a perceived threat to the nearby holy sites can ignite riots among the young Muslim men in her neighborhood, as it did in 2000 when Ariel Sharon’s visit played a key role in touching off the second intifada. If the excavation continues, she predicts, “I expect shooting. I expect a real war.”

A conflict in the Old City is the last thing Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice needs right now. For the first time since the failure of the Camp David plan to divide Jerusalem in 2000, policymakers have begun to talk seriously again about a compromise on the city, which both Israelis and Palestinians claim as their capital. Last month Haim Ramon, a close confidant of Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, floated the notion that a division of the city might be possible —a concession that was once unmentionable in the Jewish state. Yet even as Rice, Olmert and Arab leaders talk in Annapolis, Maryland, Jerusalem’s potentially destabilizing excavation boom goes on. According to the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), there are roughly twice as many digs in and around the Old City as there were two years ago, including at least three adjacent to the holy sites. “Archeology is being turned into a bastardized ideological tool of national struggle, and the timing could not be worse,” says Jerusalem rights lawyer Danny Seidemann. “This is precisely the kind of thing that causes Jerusalem to ignite.”

Archeology has long been a key battleground for two peoples searching for ammunition in a war of national narratives. Yet as the city expands, it has also become a commercial imperative. Most new building projects in or near the Old City require a “salvage excavation” to ensure that construction work won’t damage buried artifacts. New owners, in some cases right-wing trusts linked to Ateret Cohanim and other settler organizations, can choose to hire archeologists from the IAA to complete the actual dig. “In the last year there’s been a huge amount of work around the Old City,” says Jon Seligman, the IAA’s Jerusalem regional archeologist, who adds that the proliferation of digs is the result of “a series of projects that reached fruition at the same time.” Seidemann speculates that the archeology boom might be the result of a concerted effort by Israeli ideologues to tighten their hold on the city and its history. “They’re using archeology, parks and government authority to establish their particular brand of hegemony in and around the Old City,” he says.

Israeli hawks are unapologetic about the new digs. “Every time you put a shovel in the ground, you discover another synagogue,” says former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who opposes dividing Jerusalem. “Archeological truths are uncomfortable, like other truths.” Yet even some archeologists are concerned that all the new “salvage operations” risk politicizing the science. Prominent Israeli archeologist Shimon Gibson says that there has been only one excavation that had “academic motives” in the past 20 years. “Clearly, there’s a lot of money going into these excavations that comes from Jewish sources,” Gibson says. “Perhaps the time has come to put a hold on these salvage operations and their dubious funding.”

Other archeologists argue that some Muslim-controlled digs are just as problematic. Eilat Mazar, of Jerusalem’s Hebrew University, complains that a new dig by the Islamic Waqf, which manages the site of the Dome of the Rock, risks damaging relics on what Jews refer to as the Temple Mount. She bemoans the fact that heavy equipment like tractors was used in the recent dig. “I’m really astonished at their stupidity,” she says. For their part, the site’s custodians refuse to even consider the criticisms of Israeli archeologists. “This is a mosque,” says Yussef Natsheh, an art historian whose Old City office is adjacent to the dome. “Archeological laws do not apply to our site.” Among God’s real-estate agents, it seems, there is no monopoly on self-righteousness.

Fonte: Kevin Peraino – Newsweek: 11/26/2007

 

E agora leio, na lista ANE-2, um e-mail de Joe Zias, muito instrutivo, sobre a instrumentalização política da arqueologia em Jerusalém. Ele está justamente comentando o artigo da Newsweek.

There’s a lot of truth in this article as to how archaeology in Jerusalem is highly politicized, unlike the rest of the country. Unfortunately, the situation is so bad that each side is involved, totally ignoring the interests of the profession itself. Gibson, in a way is right. There’s a certain irony here however which hasn’t been discussed. In the City of David excavations several years back one of the right wing organizations funded the dig around the water tunnel, hoping to show that during the Israelite period, the engineering there was something to behold. Lo and behold, the excavators found out that the Israelite water system, was ‘small change’ compared to the magnificent water system built during the Cannanite period centuries earlier. Fortunately the archaeologists from the IAA and those responsible for the arch. there treated it with utmost respect. investing a small fortune for public viewing.

On a more personal level, which shows the politicization of Jerusalem arch, several years ago I accidentally discovered an inscription atop the famous tomb of Absalom which is very near the City of David where all this highly politicized digging is taking place. As the inscription was ca 10 meters in the air and difficult to read, funding was needed to complete the project. The East Jerusalem Development Corp. along with a US Foundation (The Foundation for Biblical Archaeology) readily funded the project, unfortunately funding wise, the Greek inscription mentioned that this was the tomb of Zachariah the father of John the Baptist. So what was believed to be a Jewish tomb, now has an inscription from the 4th century showing that they believed that it was a Christian tomb. In the meantime, we discovered additional inscriptions along the original entrance and I turned again to the city of Jerusalem for funding. Unfortunately, the mayor of Jerusalem Olmert, had left his position to become a member of the kenesset, only to be replaced by a hasidic mayor. When I approached those funding the project, I was told that as it showed a Christian presence in Jerusalem, for political /religious reasons, the chance of obtaining funding was nil. Therefore I approached one of the largest Christian organizations in Israel for help, and they too turned us down, I had the feeling that they too were a bit reluctant to get involved in the politics of archaeology here in the City of David. In the end I received additional funding from the TFBA and with my own personal funds, funded phase II of the project which provided us with what may be the earliest NT inscription (Luke 2:25) carved in stone. I’m sure that had we found inscriptions saying that this was the tomb of Absalom instead of Zachariah the father of John the Baptist, ironically both of which were 100 % Jewish, funding would have been flowing in. Unfortunately, when it comes to the politics of Jerusalem, too many people in the Holy City, love god with all their heart and hate their neighbor with all their soul. Fortunately few of those in archaeological community subscribe to this maxim, whereas too many organizations funding the archaeology of Jerusalem do.

Joe Zias – December 4, 2007

Martini: a leitura da Bíblia e o Sínodo de 2008

Em 28 de abril de 2007 anotei no blog: Bíblia: tema a ser debatido pelos bispos em 2008, onde dizia:

Foram divulgados os Lineamenta da XII Assembléia Geral Ordinária do Sínodo dos Bispos, que será realizada de 5 a 26 de outubro de 2008. O tema: A Palavra de Deus na Vida e na Missão da Igreja. Além do português, o texto está disponível, no site do Vaticano, também em alemão, espanhol, francês, inglês, italiano, latim e polonês.

Hoje, 4 de dezembro de 2007, vejo no Bibbiablog a reprodução de uma entrevista do Cardeal Martini à Rádio Vaticano sobre os Lineamenta e sua proposta de leitura da Bíblia.

Leia o post Sinodo della Parola, visto da Martini.

Texto em italiano.

Resenhas na RBL – 03.12.2007

As seguintes resenhas foram recentemente publicadas pela Review of Biblical Literature:

ORALITY AND BIBLICAL STUDIES: A REVIEW ESSAY
By Werner H. Kelber
– William A. Graham, Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion
– David M. Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature
– Susan Niditch, Oral World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite Literature
– Martin S. Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism, 200 BCE-400 CE
– Erhardt Güttgemanns, Offene Fragen zur Formgeschichte des Evangeliums: Eine methodologische Skizze der Grundlagenproblematik der Form- und Redaktionsgeschichte, translated by William G. Doty as Candid Questions Concerning Gospel Form Criticism: A Methodological Sketch of the Fundamental Problematics of Form and Redaction Criticism
– Richard A. Horsley, with Jonathan A. Draper, Whoever Hears You Hears Me: Prophets, Performance, and Tradition in Q
– D. C. Parker, The Living Text of the Gospels

Andrew D. Clarke
Secular and Christian Leadership in Corinth: A Socio-Historical and Exegetical Study of 1 Corinthians 1-6
Reviewed by Barbette Stanley Spaeth

Gina Hens-Piazza
1-2 Kings
Reviewed by Ralph W. Klein

Miriam Pucci Ben Zeev
Diaspora Judaism in Turmoil, 116/117 CE: Ancient Sources and Modern Insights
Reviewed by Joshua Schwartz

Shmuel Safrai, Zeev Safrai, Joshua Schwartz, and Peter J. Tomson, eds.
The Literature of the Sages: Second Part: Midrash and Targum, Liturgy, Poetry, Mysticism, Contracts, Inscriptions, Ancient Science and the Languages of Rabbinic Literature
Reviewed by Jan-Wim Wesselius

Paul-Gerhard Schwesig
Die Rolle der Tag-JHWHs-Dichtungen im Dodekapropheton
Reviewed by Rachel Bornand

Peter Stuhlmacher
Die Geburt des Immanuel: Die Weihnachtsgeschichten aus dem Lukas- und Matthäusevangelium
Reviewed by Markus Oehler

John N. Suggit, trans.
Oecumenius: Commentary on the Apocalypse
Reviewed by Pieter G. R. de Villiers

Robert C. Tannehill
The Shape of the Gospel: New Testament Essays
Reviewed by Derek S. Dodson

Ariel Álvarez Valdés
La Nueva Jerusalén, ¿ciudad celeste o ciudad terrestre? Estudio exegético y teológico de Ap. 21, 1-8
Reviewed by Sylvie Raquel

Laurence M. Vance
Greek Verbs in the New Testament and Their Principal Parts
Reviewed by Jutta Henner

Chris VanLandingham
Judgment and Justification in Early Judaism and the Apostle Paul
Reviewed by D. A. Carson

Christopher J. H. Wright
Knowing the Holy Spirit through the Old Testament
Reviewed by James Robson

Morreu John Strugnell (1930-2007)

Em 30 de novembro passado, morreu, em Boston, o Professor John Strugnell, aos 77 anos (1930-2007).

Strugnell trabalhou cerca de 40 anos com os Manuscritos do Mar Morto. Vi a notícia no PaleoJudaica.com, de Jim Davila, que trabalhou com ele nos Manuscritos na década de 80 e testemunha: “He was a giant in the field” [Ele era um gigante na área].

 

Sobre a publicação dos Manuscritos, escrevi em meu artigo Os Essênios: a racionalização da Solidariedade, no item Publicação:

“A leitura, tradução e publicação dos manuscritos mais ou menos completos não é um grande problema para os especialistas. Mesmo os fragmentos das grutas menores são publicados até os anos 70.

O problema está nos milhares de fragmentos de mais de 500 manuscritos da gruta 4. A maioria está muito deteriorada: corroídos, curvados, enrugados, retorcidos, cobertos por mofo e elementos químicos.

Para trabalhar nestes fragmentos é constituída em 1952 uma equipe internacional no Museu Arqueológico da Palestina, em Jerusalém Oriental, pertencente à Jordânia.

O chefe da equipe é o dominicano Roland de Vaux. Com ele trabalham Frank Moore Cross, americano, presbiteriano; J. T. Milik, polonês, católico; John Allegro, inglês, agnóstico; Jean Starcky, francês, católico; Patrick Skehan, americano, católico; John Strugnell, inglês, presbiteriano, depois católico; Claus-Hunno Hunziger, alemão, luterano. Predominam especialistas de Harvard (USA), École Biblique (Jerusalém) e Oxford (Inglaterra). Nota-se, nesta lista, a ausência de pesquisadores judeus. Dizem os especialistas que foi uma exigência do governo jordaniano.

Os trabalhos avançam em bom ritmo, já que são financiados por J. D. Rockfeller Jr., magnata americano. Mas, dois fatos intervêm: morre Rockfeller e Israel, na Guerra dos Seis Dias, em 1967, anexa Jerusalém Oriental e toma o Museu Arqueológico da Palestina onde estão os manuscritos da gruta 4. O projeto de publicação perde o compasso.

Com a morte de Roland de Vaux em setembro de 1971, a função de editor-geral passa para seu colega dominicano Pierre Benoit, que por sua vez, ao morrer em 1987, passa o cargo para John Strugnell [os preparativos para esta sucessão vinham desde 1984]. Durante todos estes anos, a equipe continua pequena. Quando um pesquisador morre ou se retira, é substituído por outro e pronto. Strugnell, porém, lutará por duas coisas: pela expansão do pequeno grupo original encarregado dos manuscritos e pela inclusão nesta equipe de pesquisadores judeus.

Entretanto, cresce no meio acadêmico mundial a insatisfação com a demora na publicação dos documentos. Alguns nomes se destacam neste protesto: Robert Eisenman, da Universidade do Estado da Califórnia e Philip R. Davies da Universidade de Sheffield, Reino Unido. Eles tentam o acesso aos manuscritos, mas são barrados por J. Strugnell. É então que entra em cena Hershel Shanks, fundador da Biblical Archaeology Society. Através da Biblical Archaeology Review, ele inicia, a partir de 1985, poderosa campanha em favor do livre acesso dos pesquisadores aos manuscritos ainda não publicados.

Após polêmica entrevista aos jornais, em dezembro de 1990, John Strugnell é demitido do cargo pela Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), que indica Emanuel Tov como editor-chefe e amplia a equipe para cerca de 50 pesquisadores.

Contudo, dois novos fatos mudam o rumo das coisas. Em setembro de 1991 Ben Zion Wacholder e Martin Abegg do Hebrew Union College, em Cincinati, publicam A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls. Baseados no glossário elaborado pelos pesquisadores oficiais, e utilizando um computador, os dois estudiosos reconstroem textos inteiros da gruta 4. No mesmo mês, a Biblioteca Huntigton, de San Marino, Califórnia, que possui as fotos de todos os manuscritos, coloca a coleção à disposição dos estudiosos.

Em novembro de 1991 a Biblical Archaeology Society publica a Edição Fac-símile dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto, com cerca de 1800 fotografias dos manuscritos.

Neste meio tempo a IAA autoriza aos fotógrafos o acesso aos manuscritos. Estas fotografias estão disponíveis em 5 lugares: Jerusalém, Claremont e San Marino (as duas últimas na Califórnia), Cincinati e Oxford. E, finalmente, em 1993, sob os auspícios da IAA, sai a edição completa em microfilmes de todos os manuscritos do Mar Morto: The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche. A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judaean Desert, edited by Emanuel Tov with the collaboration of Stephen J. Pfann, E. J. Brill-IDC, Leiden 1993.

Em novembro de 2001 a publicação dos Manuscritos do Mar Morto foi concluída. Hoje há várias edições impressas e eletrônicas dos Manuscritos, além das páginas que os disponibilizam online”.

 

Para se compreender o episódio da demissão de John Strugnell é fundamental a leitura do comentário de Joe Zias ao post de Jim West John Strugnell’s Death [Obs.: blog apagado, link perdido]. Tenho gravado um documentário televisivo sobre os Manuscritos do Mar Morto, que uso em sala de aula, no qual este episódio é narrado. Pois para mim, a demissão de Strugnell, desde que vi aquele documentário, sempre me pareceu um equívoco: o que vi foi um grande intelectual, estressado e muito doente, que foi erroneamente julgado como anti-semita e injustamente punido. Joe Zias começa assim: A brilliant scholar and a decent man, mistreated by the press due to some medical problems which many people in the academic world suffer from. I knew John for many years…