Para quem tem vontade de conhecer melhor o livro do Gênesis e lê inglês, uma boa lista de comentários pode ser encontrada no Codex, de Tyler Williams. Perto de 40 comentários… publicados em inglês ou traduzidos para o inglês. De 1964 (Speiser) a 2005 (Mathews).
E, infelizmente, não há nenhum deles traduzido para o português, tanto quanto eu saiba. Mas posso estar enganado. Espero estar enganado. Pois é constrangedor ver como é limitada a nossa bibliografia! Ou será que todo estudante lê inglês, alemão e francês por aqui? Alguns comentários podem até ser encontrados em italiano e espanhol, línguas mais acessíveis para estudantes brasileiros, mas desde quando nossos estudantes costumam (ou podem!) comprar livros em italiano e espanhol? E nem ouso perguntar como estão nossas bibliotecas…
Posted on Sunday 21 January 2007 by Tyler F. Williams
I am teaching an undergraduate course on the book of Genesis this semester, so I thought I would put together a post on what I consider some of the better commentaries on this foundational book of the Bible. I have focused on commentaries in English and have made recommendations for scholars, teachers and preachers, as well as students and lay people.
There are many good commentaries on the book of Genesis, though with Genesis — perhaps more so than other books — the critical commentaries can focus extensively on matters of historical-criticism. While this may be valuable for questions of authorship and the development of a book like Genesis, it doesn’t help with the interpretation of the final canonical form of the text. That being said, Claus Westermann‘s three-volume commentary is excellent, both for its engagement with the critical questions and matters of interpretation (and Speiser to a lesser degree). I also find Nahum Sarna‘s commentary to not only be beautifully typeset, but also rich in its dealing with the Hebrew text and Jewish interpretation. wenham_genesis.jpgFrom a more evangelical perspective, Gordon Wenham‘s masterful volumes are second to none. While Wenham is more concerned with literary and theological issues, he also engages most critical issues with scholarly responsibility. As such, Wenham is my choice for best overall commentary on Genesis.
Other good critical commentaries include Coats (somewhat limited by the nature of the FOTL series) and von Rad (a classic tradition-history commentary albeit somewhat sparse), while Brodie‘s literary analysis is interesting to say the least. For a conservative Jewish perspective on the opening chapters of Genesis check out Cassuto. In addition, for those interested in the history of the interpretation of this book, the volumes in the Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture by Louth and Sheridan are worthy of careful perusal. Finally, Hermann Gunkel‘s ground breaking commentary on Genesis has been recently translated into English by Mark Biddle and is full of many insights for the assiduous reader.
For pastors and teachers, there are ample commentaries to choose from. Brueggemann, Cotter, Fretheim, Gangel, Hamilton, Mahthews, Ross, and Waltke are all good, though I would probably go with Hamilton if you are looking for one solid commentary written from an evangelical perspective. If you want a broader perspective, then both Brueggemann and Fretheim are excellent. While not a full commentary, Alter‘s translation is refreshing and his comments are also quite insightful.
More popular-level commentaries include Gowan, Hartley, Janzen, Kidner, Roop and Walton. I have used Roop as a textbook in the past and have quite liked its style and theological substance. I also find the ITCs by Gowan and Janzen quite insightful. And Kidner, of course, always provides solid exposition from an evangelical point of view. I have to say, however, that I have been nothing but impressed with John Walton‘s commentary in the NIV Application Commentary Series. While he may be a bit more on the conservative side of the spectrum, his knowledge and engagement of the ancient Near Eastern literary, cultural, and historical background to the book are evident on every page. I highly recommend his commentary for pastors, students, and laypeople alike.
Here is an (almost) exhaustive listing of commentaries on the book of Genesis in English:
Alter, Robert. Genesis: Translation and Commentary. W.W. Norton, 1996.
Brodie, Thomas L. Genesis as Dialogue: A Literary, Historical, & Theological Commentary. Oxford University Press, 2001.
Brueggemann, Walter. Genesis. Interpretation. John Knox, 1982.
Cassuto, U. From Adam to Noah: A Commentary on the Book of Genesis I-VI. Magnes Press, 1984.
Cassuto, U. From Adam to Noah: A Commentary on the Book of Genesis VII-XI. Magnes Press, 1984.
Coats, George W. Genesis, with an Introduction to Narrative Literature. Forms of the Old Testament Literature. Eerdmans, 1983.
Cotter, David W. Genesis. Berit Olam. Liturgical Press, 2003.
Davidson, Robert. Genesis 1-11. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge University Press, 1973.
Davidson, Robert. Genesis 12-50. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge University Press, 1973.
Fretheim, Terence. Genesis. New Interpreter’s Bible, vol. 1: Genesis to Leviticus. Abingdon, 1994. |
Gangel, Kenneth and Stephen Bramer. Genesis. Holman Old Testament Commentary. Broadman Holman, 2003.
Gibson, John. Genesis, vol. 1. Daily Study Bible. Westminster John Knox, 1981.
Gibson, John. Genesis, vol. 2. Daily Study Bible. Westminster John Knox, 1982.
Gowan, Donald E. From Eden to Babel: A Commentary on the Book of Genesis 1-11. International Theological Commentary. Eerdmans, 1988.
Gunkel, Hermann. Genesis. Mercer Library of Biblical Studies. Mercer University Press, 1997.
Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1990.
Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1994.
Hartley, John E. Genesis. New International Biblical Commentary: Old Testament. Hendrickson, 2000.
Janzen, J. Gerald. Abraham and All the Families of the Earth: A Commentary on the Book of Genesis 12-50. International Theological Commentary. Eerdmans, 1993.
Kessler, Martin, and Karel Adriaan Deurloo. A Commentary on Genesis: The Book of Beginnings. Paulist Press, 2004.
Kidner, Derek. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. InterVarsity, 1967.
Louth, Andrew, and Marco Conti. Genesis 1-11. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament. InterVarsity, 2001.
Mathews, K. A. Genesis 1-11:26. New American Commentary. Broadman & Holman, 1996.
Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 11:27-50:26. New American Commentary. Broadman & Holman, 2005. |
Rad, Gerhard von. Genesis: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Westminster Press, 1972.
Roop, Eugene F. Genesis. Believers Church Bible Commentary. Herald Press, 1987.
Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of the Book of Genesis. Baker, 1988.
Sailhammer, John H. Genesis. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 1: Genesis-Numbers. Zondervan, 1990.
Sarna, Nahum M. Genesis: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989.
Scullion SJ, John. Genesis: A Commentary for Students, Teachers and Preachers. Liturgical Press, 1992.
Sheridan, Mark. Genesis 12-50. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament. InterVarsity, 2002.
Speiser, E. A. Genesis: A New Translation with Commentary and Notes. Anchor Bible. Doubleday, 1964.
Towner, Wayne Sibley. Genesis. Westminster Bible Companion. Westminster John Knox, 2001.
Turner, Laurence A. Genesis. Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.
Waltke, Bruce K., and Cathi J. Fredricks. Genesis: A Commentary. Zondervan, 2001.
Walton, John H. Genesis. The NIV Application Commentary. Zondervan, 2001.
Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15. Word Biblical Commentary. Word, 1991.
Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50. Word Biblical Commentary. Word, 1994.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis 1-11: A Commentary. Continental Commentaries. Augsburg, 1984.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis 12-36: A Commentary. Continental Commentaries. Augsburg, 1985.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis 37-50: A Commentary. Continental Commentaries. Augsburg, 1986.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis: A Practical Commentary. Text and Interpretation. Eerdmans, 1987.
Tyler Williams está indicando também os comentários ao Gênesis que serão publicados brevemente.
Posted on Sunday 28 January 2007 by Tyler F. Williams
In a comment on my previous post on commentaries on the book of Genesis, John Hobbins of Ancient Hebrew Poetry fame noted the value of Skinner’s ICC volume on Genesis (and he’s right, I should have at least listed it!). He also mentioned Ronald Hendel’s forthcoming commentary on Genesis for the Anchor Bible series (replacing Speiser). If Hendel’s work The Text of Genesis 1-11 (Oxford University Press, 1998; ) is any indication, his Anchor Bible commentary will be the top critical commentary available on Genesis for years to come (or at least until Clifford’s Hermeneia volume is published!).
Here is a listing of other forthcoming commentaries on the book of Genesis:
Bill Arnold. New Cambridge Bible Commentary (Cambridge University Press). A popular series based on the NRSV aimed at Pastors and laypeople. This volume is still in progress and won’t be published for a few years.
David Baker. Apollos Old Testament Commentary (Apollos/InterVarsity Press). A semi-popular series based on the author’s own translation of the Hebrew text. This volume is several years down the road.
Erhard Blum. Historical Commentary on the Old Testament (Peeters). The title of this series is a bit misleading if you are expecting a history of interpretation. The series is more of a historical-critical commentary aimed at scholars and ministers.
Richard Clifford. Hermeneia (Fortress). This is one of the premier critical commentaries available in English (and it’s beautifully typeset). If Clifford’s volume on The Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible (Catholic Biblical Association, 1994; ) is any indication, this should be a very good critical commentary. It is at least three years from publication.
Blackwell Bible Commentaries (Blackwell). This series looks more at the reception history of the book under study. As such it is of primary interest to scholars and teachers. This one was assigned to Danna Fewell and Gary Phillips, but they have since dropped out and I don’t think the commentary has been reassigned yet (at least there is no indication on the Blackwell site)
Duane Garrett. Kregel Expository Commentary on the Old Testament (Kregel; note the title of the series is still tentative). This is a conservative evangelical series geared for pastors and laypeople. Garrett is author of Rethinking Genesis, The Sources and Authorship of the First Book of the Pentateuch (Baker Book, 1991), which I reviewed a number of years back. The commentary is at least two years from completion.
Ronald S. Hendel. Anchor Bible (2 volumes, Doubleday). The new volumes in this series are excellent critical commentaries. The first volume on Genesis 1-11 should be available in 2008 if everything goes according to schedule.
Theodore Hiebert. Abingdon Old Testament Commentary (Abingdon). A popular series aimed at pastors and laypeople.
Kathleen M. O’Connor. Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary (Smyth & Helwys). This is a unique series aimed at pastors and laypeople that includes insightful sidebars, fine art visuals, and a CD-Rom containing all the text and images of the volume in a searchable format. This volume will be a while since she is just getting underway with it.
Russell R. Reno. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible (Brazos/Baker). A series designed to serve the church; appropriate for pastors, teachers, and laypeople. This volume may be available in late 2008.
John H. Sailhamer. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Rev. (Zondervan). This volume is scheduled to be released in June 2008.
Most of these commentaries are a number of years off. The only ones which I am not sure of any potential publication date are the Hiebert and Blum volumes. So it looks like we’ll have to make due with what we already have!