Mitos da Mesopotâmia

DALLEY, S. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, 339 p. – ISBN 9780199538362.

DALLEY, S. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, 339 p.

The myths collected here include parallels with the biblical stories of the Creation and the Flood, and the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, the tale of a man of great strength, whose heroic quest for immortality is dashed through one moment of weakness. Recent developments in Akkadian grammar and lexicography mean that this new translation–complete with notes, a glossary of deities, place-names, and key terms, and illustrations of the mythical monsters featured in the text–will replace all other versions.

Stephanie M. Dalley

Stephanie M. Dalley is a Retired Research Fellow in Assyriology, Faculty of Oriental Studies at Oxford. From 1979 to 2007, she taught Akkadian and Sumerian at the Oriental Institute, Oxford University, UK.

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Literatura sapiencial na Mesopotâmia e em Israel

CLIFFORD, R. J. (ed.) Wisdom Literature in Mesopotamia and Israel. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007, 132 p. – ISBN 9781589832190. 

CLIFFORD, R. J. (ed.) Wisdom Literature in Mesopotamia and Israel. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007, 132 p.

This volume in the SBL Symposium series grew out of a panel on “Mesopotamian Wisdom Literature and Its Legacy in the Ancient Near East” at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in 2004 at San Antonio, Texas. Panelists Paul-Alain Beaulieu, Karel van der Toorn, Peter Machinist, and Victor Avigdor Hurowitz—biblical scholars as well as distinguished Assyriologists—gave papers on Mesopotamian wisdom literature. The editor of this volume, Richard Clifford, was chair of the SBL panel. Though primarily concerned with Mesopotamia, the panelists adduced parallels to other cultures and literatures, including ancient Israel. One paper was on the intellectual and social setting of Babylonian wisdom literature; another was on the development of the concept of wisdom especially in the Old Babylonian and Standard Versions of the Gilgamesh Epic. Two papers were fresh studies of important though difficult wisdom texts, one long known and the other recently published. So well attended was the meeting and so stimulating the discussion that the panelists and chair decided to publish the papers and invite other scholars to contribute to the volume. Since all the papers focus on specific issues or texts, a general guide to the publication of Mesopotamian wisdom literature in its relationship to biblical literature is called for.

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Richard J. Clifford (born 1934)

Richard J. Clifford (born 1934) is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament at Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

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Cosmogonias no Antigo Oriente Médio e na Bíblia

Para entender o motivo dessa publicação, clique aqui.



CLIFFORD, R. J. Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible. Washington: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994, XIII + 217 p. – ISBN 9780915170258.


This book examines the Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Canaanite, and Biblical cosmogonies. It seeks to clarify the meaning of creation in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible, and thereby to establish a broad context in which individual themes can be compared.

Richard J. Clifford

Richard J. Clifford is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament at Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

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Ele o abismo viu: a Epopeia de Gilgámesh

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BRANDÃO, J. L. Como se faz um herói: as linhas de força do poema de Gilgámesh. E-Hum, Belo Horizonte, v. 8, n. 1, p. 104-121, 2015.

O trabalho é uma tradução comentada da qual a primeira parte (a primeira tabuinha) se encontra publicada no volume 10 (2014) da Revista Nuntius antiquus. Nesse sentido, o objetivo é duplo: de um lado, apresentar algo de minha tradução da versão babilônica clássica da chamada epopeia de Gilgámesh (cujo título original é Ele o abismo viu), atribuída ao “exorcista” (mašmaššu) Sîn-lēqi-unninni e composta por volta do século XIII a. C.; por outro lado, examinar as linhas de força temáticas que dão coesão ao poema, considerando a conexão que nele têm os feitos heroicos com o sexo, a morte e a vida civilizada.

BRANDÃO, J. L. No princípio era a água. Rev. UFMG, Belo Horizonte, v. 20, n. 2, p.22-41, 2013. 

Este trabalho trata das cosmogonias babilônicas que instituem a água como o princípio de tudo, bem como das tradições grega e hebraica delas dependentes. No poema intitulado Enuma elish, escrito provavelmente no século XII a.C., Apsû e Tiamat – a água das fontes e a água do mar, respectivamente – são apresentados como os primeiros deuses, a partir dos quais o mundo ganha forma. Ressalta-se como, provindo de povos que vivem no deserto, esses mitos sublinham o caráter da água como fonte de vida, ao mesmo tempo que elaboram uma imagem do mar como uma força perigosa que é preciso conter em seus limites, tarefa que cabe ao mais jovem dos deuses, responsável pela ordem do mundo.

BRANDÃO, J. L. Sîn-lēqi-unninni, Ele o abismo viu (Série de Gilgámesh 1). Nuntius Antiquus, Belo Horizonte, v. X, n. 2, jul.-dez., p. 125-159, 2014.

Apresento a tradução da primeira tabuinha de Ele o abismo viu (Sha naqba imuru), poema babilônico que se costuma intitular “Epopeia de Gilgámesh”. Trata-se do primeiro resultado que publico de projeto em fase de finalização e que teve como objetivo traduzir todo o poema diretamente do acádio.

Jacyntho José Lins Brandão

Jacyntho José Lins Brandão é  Professor de Língua e Literatura Grega na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte.

Mitos mesopotâmicos

BOTTÉRO, J. ; KRAMER, S. N. Lorsque les dieux faisaient l’homme: Mythologie Mésopotamienne. Paris: Gallimard, 1993, 755 p. – ISBN 9782070713820.

BOTTÉRO, J. ; KRAMER, S. N. Lorsque les dieux faisaient l'homme: Mythologie Mésopotamienne. Paris: Gallimard, 1993, 755 p.

On trouvera ici, pour la première fois rassemblés, traduits et dûment éclairés par deux éminents spécialistes, la cinquantaine de mythes sauvés du naufrage de la civilisation mésopotamienne. Ces documents vénérables, dont les plus vieux remontent à la fin du millénaire, sont les plus anciens témoignages écrits du travail de pensée par lequel des hommes ont tenté de répondre, avec les moyens de leur bord, aux questions éternelles qui nous travaillent toujours devant cet univers démesuré autour de nous, devant notre propre existence, le sens et le destin de notre vie.

Jean Bottéro (1914 - 2007)

Jean Bottéro (1914 – 2007) foi um historiador e  renomado assiriólogo francês.

Samuel Noah Kramer (1897-1990)

Samuel Noah Kramer (1897-1990) foi um renomado assiriólogo, especialista em língua e literatura suméria.

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Literatura suméria

Para entender o motivo dessa publicação, clique aqui.

BLACK J. et alii The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, 438 p. – ISBN 9780199296330.

BLACK J. et alii The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, 438 p.

This anthology of Sumerian literature constitutes the most comprehensive collection ever published, and includes examples of most of the different types of composition written in the language, from narrative myths and lyrical hymns to proverbs and love poetry. The translations have benefited both from the work of many scholars and from our ever-increasing understanding of Sumerian. In addition to reflecting the advances made by modern scholarship, the translations are written in clear, accessible English. An extensive introduction discusses the literary qualities of the works, the people who created and copied them in ancient Iraq, and how the study of Sumerian literature has evolved over the last 150 years.

Jeremy Allen Black (1951 - 2004)

Jeremy Allen Black (1951 – 2004) was a leading Assyriologist, master of Sumerian literature, and Oxford University Lecturer.

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Homens e mulheres na Epopeia de Gilgámesh

ABUSCH, T. Male and Female in the Epic of Gilgamesh: Encounters, Literary History, and Interpretation. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015, IX + 236 p. – ISBN 9781575063492.

ABUSCH, T. Male and Female in the Epic of Gilgamesh: Encounters, Literary History, and Interpretation. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015, IX + 236 p.

The Epic of Gilgamesh combines the power and tragedy of the Iliad with the wanderings and marvels of the Odyssey. It is a work of adventure, but it is no less a meditation on some fundamental issues of human existence. The epic explores many issues; it surely provides a Mesopotamian formulation of human predicaments and options. Most of all, the work grapples with issues of an existential nature. It talks about the powerful human drive to achieve, the value of friendship, the experience of loss, the inevitability of death. The story draws together the many strands that make up the identity of Gilgamesh: man, hero, king, god. Gilgamesh must learn to live. The studies gathered here all demonstrate Tzvi Abusch s approach to ancient literature: to make use of the tools of literary, structural, and critical analysis in service of exploring the personal and psychological dimensions of the narration. The author focuses especially on the encounters between males and females in the story. The essays are not only instructive for understanding the Epic of Gilgamesh, they also serve as exemplary studies of ancient literature with a view to investigating streams of commonality between ancient times and ours.

Tzvi Abusch

Tzvi Abusch is Rose B. and Joseph Cohen Professor of Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern Religion, Brandeis University, USA.

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Uma história do Antigo Oriente Médio

VAN DE MIEROOP , M. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000–323 BC. 3. ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, 424 p. – ISBN  9781118718162.

VAN DE MIEROOP , M. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000–323 BC. 3. ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, 424 p.

Incorporating the latest scholarly research in this rapidly developing field, the third edition of A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 323 BC presents a comprehensive overview of the extraordinary multicultural civilizations of the ancient Near East. Marc Van De Mieroop (born 1956) is Professor at Departament of History, Columbia University, New York, USA.

Marc Van De Mieroop (born 1956)

Um guia para o Antigo Oriente Médio

SNELL, D. C. (ed.) A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, 528 p. – ISBN 9781405160018.

SNELL, D. C. (ed.) A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, 528 p.

A Companion to the Ancient Near East offers students and general readers a comprehensive overview of Near Eastern civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the Great. Written by leading experts, the book examines all the major civilizations of the region, including the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites, and Persians. The Companion provides a survey of both the history of the Ancient Near East and the sources for studying the period. It places special emphasis on social and cultural history and also covers the legacy of the Ancient Near East in the medieval and modern worlds. 

Daniel C. Snell (born 1947)

Daniel C. Snell (born 1947) is Professor at College of Art & Sciences, Department of History, University of Oklahoma, USA.

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O básico do Antigo Oriente Médio

SNELL, D. C. Ancient Near East: The Basics. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, 178 p. – ISBN  9780415656986.

SNELL, D. C. Ancient Near East: The Basics. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, 178 p.

Ancient Near East: The Basics surveys the history of the ancient Middle East from the invention of writing to Alexander the Great’s conquest. The book introduces both the physical and intellectual environment of those times, the struggles of state-building and empire construction, and the dissent from those efforts. Daniel C. Snell (born 1947) is Professor at College of Art & Sciences, Department of History, University of Oklahoma, USA.

 Daniel C. Snell (born 1947)

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Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia