Alguns comentários do Livro do Êxodo

Sobre métodos de leitura

In the scholarly discourse, at least in Europe, the question of the historicity of the exodus plays only a minor role. Most research is not done on the question “whether the history is true or not”; the majority of works investigate the history of tradition of various aspects of the book of Exodus or its redactional history or its narrative structure or its different theological objectives (Wolfgang Oswald, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany).

No meio acadêmico, pelo menos na Europa, a questão da historicidade do êxodo tem pouca importância. As obras, em sua maioria, não tentam definir se o êxodo do Egito foi um fato histórico ou não, mas pesquisam a história da tradição de vários aspectos do livro do Êxodo ou a sua história redacional ou sua estrutura narrativa ou seus diferentes objetivos teológicos, explica Wolfgang Oswald, da Universidade de Tübingen, Tübingen, Alemanha, na RBL).


Um bom livro sobre seis métodos de leitura do Livro do Êxodo pode ser:

:: DOZEMAN, T. B. (ed.) Methods for Exodus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, xiv + 254 p. – ISBN 9780521710015.

Este livro explica aos leitores como usar, com proveito, seis diferentes métodos na interpretação do livro do Êxodo:
. Dennis T. Olson escreve sobre a Leitura Literária e Retórica (Literary and Rhetorical Criticism), privilegiando uma abordagem centrada no texto em oposição a uma abordagem centrada no leitor ou no autor
. Kenton L. Sparks observa o texto a partir de seu Gênero Literário (Genre Criticism)
. Suzanne Boorer escreve sobre a Crítica das Fontes e da Redação (Source and Redaction Criticism)
. Jorge Pixley propõe uma Leitura Libertadora (Liberation Criticism), mostrando, na linha da Teologia da Libertação latino-americana, como o contexto do leitor marca fortemente a interpretação do texto bíblico
. Naomi Steinberg trabalha a Leitura Feminista (Feminist Criticism)
. Gale Yee explica como funciona a Leitura Pós-Colonial (Postcolonial Biblical Criticism)
Cada autor explica o surgimento e desenvolvimento do método usado e, em seguida, o aplica aos textos de Ex 1-2 e 19-20. Cada capítulo termina com uma bibliografia que indica ao leitor como aprender mais sobre o assunto. Thomas B. Dozeman, o organizador da obra, escreve o capítulo introdutório, onde explica a proposta do livro.

Este é o quarto volume da coleção Métodos de Interpretação Bíblica, publicada pela editora da Universidade de Cambridge. Os três primeiros volumes tratam de métodos para a leitura de Lucas (organizador: Joel B. Green), de Mateus (organizador: Mark Allan Powell) e dos Salmos (organizadora: Esther Marie Menn).

Resenha de Methods for Exodus: escrita por Brian D. Russell, do Asbury Theological Seminary, Orlando, Flórida, e publicada na RBL (Review of Biblical Literature) em 20/05/2011.

Methods for Exodus is a textbook on biblical methodology. The book introduces readers to six distinct methodologies that aid in the interpretation of the book of Exodus: literary and rhetorical, genre, source and redaction, liberation, feminist, and postcolonial criticisms. Describing each methodology, the volume also explores how the different methods relate to and complement one another. Each chapter includes a summary of the hermeneutical presuppositions of a particular method with a summary of the impact of the method on the interpretation of the book of Exodus. In addition, Exodus 1-2 and 19-20 are used to illustrate the application of each method to specific texts. The book is unique in offering a broad methodological discussion with all illustrations centered on the book of Exodus.

Methods for Exodus, edited by Thomas B. Dozeman, is the fourth volume in the series Methods in Biblical Interpretation. Earlier volumes include Methods for Luke, edited by Joel B. Green; Methods for Matthew, edited by Mark Allan Powell, and Methods for the Psalms, edited by Esther Marie Menn. The Methods in Biblical Interpretation series from Cambridge University Press seeks to introduce students and general readers of the Bible to six distinct hermeneutical approaches to the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament.

Review by Brian D. Russell, Asbury Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida, RBL, published 05/20/2011.



:: CHILDS, B. S. The Book of Exodus: A Critical, Theological Commentary. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, [1974] 2004 , xxvi + 662 p. – ISBN 9780664229689

. Em espanhol: El libro del Éxodo: comentario crítico y teológico. Estella (Navarra): Verbo Divino, 2003, 632 p. – ISBN 9788481693997

Taking a pioneering approach to commentary writing, Brevard Childs gives an entirely original treatment to the book of Exodus. Apart from the philological notes and translation, this commentary of The Old Testament Library, includes a form-critical section, looking at the growth of the tradition in its previous stages; a consideration of the meaning of the text in its present form; and a consideration of its meaning in its total Old Testament context.

Coleção: The Old Testament Library.

Uma observação: este comentário, apesar de antigo, é sempre citado, por ser considerado um clássico. It’s dated, but a classic in many respects.

Brevard Springs Childs (1923-2007) was Sterling Professor of Divinity and Fellow of Davenport College at Yale Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut.


:: DOZEMAN, T. B. Exodus. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009, xix + 868 p. – ISBN 9780802826176

In this volume Thomas B. Dozeman presents a fresh translation of the Hebrew text of Exodus along with a careful, critical interpretation of its central themes, literary structure, and history of composition. He explores two related themes in the formation of the book of Exodus: the identity of Yahweh, the God of Israel, and the authority of Moses, the leader of the Israelite people. Dozeman clarifies the multiple literary genres within the text, identifies only two separate authors in the book’s composition [P and Non-P: this Non-P History was written in the late exilic or early postexilic period and at many points presumes the Deuteronomistic History. Here and elsewhere Dozeman’s approach depends largely on the works of John Van Seters, whose positions he frequently employs], and highlights the rich insights that arise from the comparative study of the ancient Near Eastern literary tradition. Dozeman provides an extensive introduction in which he discusses the development of pentateuchal studies in recent decades, with special attention to German criticism. The genre of the narrative as a whole he defines as “salvation history. He dates the book to the late exilic period at the earliest.

Coleção: Eerdmans Critical Commentary.

Reviews by Frank H. Polak, RBL, published 09/16/2010, and by Wolfgang Oswald, RBL, published 12/24/2010.

Thomas B. Dozeman is Professor of Hebrew Bible at United Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio.


:: HOUTMAN, C. Exodus I-III. Leuven: Peeters, 1993-2000
. Volume 1: Chapters 1-7, 1993, 554 p. – ISBN 9789042924673
. Volume 2: Chapters 8-19, 1996, 466 p. – ISBN 9789042920064
. Volume 3: Chapters 20-40, 2000, xiv + 737 p. – ISBN 9789042908055

With the appearance of its final volume in English [translated by Sierd Woudstra], Cornelis Houtman’s monumental, three-volume commentary on Exodus reaches a wider audience than could its Dutch original. The bibliography has been updated to produce a fairly full state of the field for the fin du millénaire. This Exodus passes well the prime test of any commentary: utility. The reader will find a full and clear discussion of almost any question (s)he might raise. Not only matters of original meaning, but also the history of interpretation are addressed (…) So magisterial and useful a volume requires no approbation and is immune to cavil. The reviewer can only congratulate Houtman on the completion of a Herculean labor (da resenha de William H. C. Propp ao volume 3)

Coleção: Historical Commentary on the Old Testament

Visualização no Google Books

Review – volume 3 – by William H. C. Propp, RBL, published 12/5/2001.

Uma observação: um quarto volume foi publicado em 2002, com índices e atualização bibliográfica. Veja:

HOUTMAN, C. Exodus, Volume 4 Supplement. Leuven: Peeters, 2002, viii + 70 p. – ISBN 9789042911260

This volume is the supplement to the three volumes C. Houtman wrote on Exodus. It contains the indexes to his commentary which are designed to provide easier access to the wide range of subjects touched on than would be possible solely through consulting tables of contents. They are intended as starting points to put the user on the track of further information found in the many references in the text itself. The index of Hebrew words and phrases contains an overview of almost all the terms used in Exodus. Omitted are prepositions and some pronouns and particles. Personal and geographical names are included in the index of subjects. He also took the opportunity to make many bibliographical additions, especially of recent literature.

Cornelis Houtman is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament at Kampen Theological University, The Netherlands


:: MEYERS, C. Exodus. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005, xxiii + 311 p. – ISBN 9780521807814

This commentary views Exodus as a cultural document (see Jan Assmann), preserving the collective memories of the Israelites and relating them to the major institutions and beliefs that emerged by the end of the time of the Hebrew Bible. It is intended to help the reader follow the story line of Exodus, understand its socio-cultural context, appreciate its literary features, recognize its major themes and values, and also note its interpretive and moral problems. Carol Meyers explains important concepts and terms as expressed in the Hebrew original so that those who know Hebrew as well as those who don’t will be able to follow the text.

Coleção: New Cambridge Bible Commentary.

Review by Christoph Dohmen, RBL, published 10/15/2006.

Carol Meyers is Professor of Religion at Duke University, Durham, NC.


:: PROPP, W. H. C. Exodus 1-18: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999, xl + 680 p. – ISBN 9780300139389

“Exodus” is the heart of the Hebrew Bible, the defining moment in Israel’s birth as a people, the dramatic triumph of their God. Yahweh, Pharaoh, Moses, Aaron, the Hebrew slaves, the plagues, the parting of the Red Sea – these larger-than-life characters and epoch-making events capture the imagination of everyone from biblical scholars to moviemakers. However, the meaning and significance, the beauty and nuance, of this captivating biblical book are lost unless we have a world-class Scripture scholar to open our eyes to its riches. In “Exodus 1-18”, William H. C. Propp translates the original text in all its grandeur, then provides a masterful exploration and analysis of the book’s first eighteen chapters. Here the fate of the Hebrew slaves hangs in the balance of the dramatic conflict between the God of Israel and the Pharaoh of Egypt. From the discovery of Moses in a basket made of bulrushes to the story of the Burning Bush, from the ten plagues visited upon Egypt by God to water from the rock and quail and manna from the skies, “Exodus” is filled with the miraculous and the dramatic. Doubleday is proud to be publishing the long-awaited first of two volumes of the “The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries” on “Exodus”. Exhaustive, meticulous, and brilliantly researched, Propp’s “Exodus 1-18” is well worth the wait, exceeding expectations and meeting the reader’s every need.

Coleção: The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries.

Review by David Palmer, RBL, published 11/06/2000.

William Henry Covici Propp is Professor of History and Judaic Studies at the University of California, San Diego.


:: PROPP, W. H. C. Exodus 19-40: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006, xxx + 865 p. – ISBN 9780300139396

The long-awaited conclusion of William H. C. Propp’s masterful study of Exodus, this informative, clearly written commentary provides a new perspective on Israelite culture and on the role of ritual, law, and covenant in biblical religion.”Exodus 19-40″ sets a new standard in biblical scholarship. Thorough and up-to-date, it is the first commentary on Exodus to include critical textual evidence from the recently edited “Dead Sea Scrolls”. Informed by Propp’s deep understanding of ancient cultural mores and religious traditions, it casts new light on the Israelites’ arrival at Sinai, their entry into a covenant with God, their reception of the Law, their worship of the golden calf, and their reconciliation to God.The incisive commentary on the building of the Holy Tabernacle – God’s wilderness abode – is supplemented by numerous illustrations that clarify the biblical text. Propp extends the scope and relevance of this major work in five appendices that discuss the literary formation of the Torah, the historicity of the Exodus tradition, the origins of Israelite monotheism, the Exodus theme in the Bible, and the future of Old Testament scholarship. By taking an anthropological rather than strictly theological approach, Propp places familiar stories within a fresh context. The result is a fully accessible guide to one of the most important and best known books of the Bible.

Coleção: The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries.

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