Os filhos de Deus em Gênesis 6,1-4

 Artigo e livro sobre um texto difícil do Antigo Testamento: Gn 6, 1-4.

Um artigo:

Those Elusive Sons of God: Genesis 6:1–4 Revisited – By Jaap Doedens – The Bible and Interpretation – April 2019

Since the beginning of the 20th century, and especially after the numerous discoveries of similar expressions in extrabiblical texts, mainstream exegesis returned to a ‘superhuman’ interpretation of the ‘sons of God’ in Gen 6:1–4. Yet now they were not viewed as (fallen) angels, but as ‘divine beings’, or deities (…) This newer exegetical solution is most probably the correct one.

Is it possible to discover an historical kernel of this narrative about marriages of divine beings and human women resulting in the birth of giant heroes? The origin of this narrative could perhaps be connected with the presence of megalithic tombs, mainly in the Transjordan region, the so called dolmens, dating from the end of the third and the beginning of the second millennium BCE. It is reasonable  that, because of their mere size, these monumental structures gave rise to tales about giant fallen warriors. Somehow, one of these tales made its way into the biblical narrative, and became part of a theological framework elucidating humanity’s fate with all its trial and error.

Um livro:

DOEDENS, J.  The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4: Analysis and History of Exegesis. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 372 p. – ISBN 9789004284265.

DOEDENS, J.  The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4: Analysis and History of Exegesis. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 372 p. - ISBN 9789004284265

In The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1–4, Jaap Doedens offers an overview of the history of exegesis of the enigmatic text about the ‘sons of God’, the ‘daughters of men’, and the ‘giants’. First, he analyzes the text of Gen 6:1–4. Subsequently, he tracks the different exegetical proposals from the earliest exegesis until those of modern times. He further provides the reader with an evaluation of the meaning of the expression ‘sons of God’ in the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East. In the last chapter, he concentrates on the message and function of Gen 6:1–4. This volume comprehensively gathers ancient and modern exegetical attempts, providing the means for an ongoing dialogue about this essentially complex and elusive passage.

Sumário

Acknowledgments
Abbreviations

1 Setting the Course: Introduction
 1 From Boulder to Keystone to Stumbling Block
 2 The Mainstream Solutions
 3 Approach

2 A Quest for Meaning: Analyzing Genesis 6:1–4
 1 Introduction
 2 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:1
 3 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:2
 4 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:3
 5 Lexical and Grammatical Analysis of Genesis 6:4
 6 Content and Context: General Observations Relating to Genesis 6:1–4
 7 Dramatis Personae: Provisional Conclusions Related to Genesis 6:1–4

3 Trodden Paths: History of Exegesis of the Expression ‘Sons of God’
 1 Introduction
 2 The Ancient Versions
 3 Philo of Alexandria
 4 Flavius Josephus
 5 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
 6 Dead Sea Scrolls
 7 Rabbinic Tradition
 8 New Testament
 9 The Church Fathers
 10 Late Middle Ages and Reformation
 11 Newer Exegesis
 12 Conclusions to the History of Exegesis

4 At the Crossroads: Weighing Exegetical Solutions
 1 Introduction
 2 The Heavenly Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Angels
 3 The Social Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Mighty-Ones
 4 The Religious Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Sethites
 5 The Mythological Category: ‘Sons of God’ Interpreted as Divine Beings
 6 Minor Variants and Combinations
 7 Conclusions

5 Perspectives: The Functions of Genesis 6:1–4
 1 Introduction
 2 ‘Sons of God’ and Biblical Monotheism
 3 Genesis 6:1–4 and Myth in the Old Testament
 4 Truth Claim and Functions of Genesis 6:1–4
 5 Final Observations
Bibliography
Index of Ancient Sources

Jaap Doedens, Ph.D. Kampen Theological University (2013), Pápa Reformed Theological Seminary, Pápa, Hungary, is college associate professor at the latter seminary. He has published articles on the Old Testament, the intertestamental period, and the New Testament in English, Dutch, and Hungarian

Leia mais sobre Gn 6,1-4 em Remnant of Giants.

Uma abordagem crítica da história da Palestina

HJELM, I. ; TAHA, H. ; PAPPE, I. ; THOMPSON, T. L. (eds.) A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine: Palestine History and Heritage Project 1. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 400 p. – ISBN 9780367146375.  

HJELM, I. ; TAHA, H. ; PAPPE, I. ; THOMPSON, T. L. (eds.) A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine: Palestine History and Heritage Project 1. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019

A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine offers a comprehensive, evidence-based history of Palestine with a critical use of recent historical, archaeological and anthropological methods. This history is not an exclusive history, but one that is ethnically and culturally inclusive, a history of and for all peoples who have lived in Palestine. After an introductory essay offering a strategy for creating coherence and continuity from the earliest beginnings to the present, the volume presents twenty articles from 22 contributors, 16 of whom are of Middle Eastern origin or relation.

Split thematically into four parts, the volume discusses ideology, national identity and chronology in various historiographies of Palestine and the legacy of memory and oral history; the transient character of ethnicity in Palestine, and questions regarding the ethical responsibilities of archaeologists and historians to protect the multi-ethnic cultural heritage of Palestine; landscape and memory, and the values of community archaeology and bio-archaeology; and an exploration of the “ideology of the land” and its influence on Palestine’s history and heritage.

The first in a series of books under the auspices of the Palestine History and Heritage Project (PaHH), the volume offers a challenging new departure for writing the history of Palestine and Israel throughout the ages. A New Critical Approach to the History of Palestine explores the diverse history of the region against the backdrop of twentieth century scholarly construction of the history of Palestine as a history of a Jewish homeland, with roots in an ancient, biblical Israel, and examines the implications of this ancient and recent history for archaeology and cultural heritage. The book offers a fascinating new perspective for students and academics in the fields of anthropological, political, cultural and biblical history.

Publicação prevista para junho de 2019.