O livro de Ageu e a reconstrução do Templo

O artigo

The Book of Haggai and the Rebuilding of the Temple in the Early Persian Period

By John Robert Barker – Catholic Theological Union, Chicago

The Bible and Interpretation – December 2017

Until recently, the period of biblical history known as the postexilic, or Persian, era has suffered from relative neglect by biblical scholars. True, there are have always been those scholars who dedicated their lives to the study of the books that reflect this period – Ezra, Nehemiah, and the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi – but it is only in the last few decades that Persian period studies have come into their own, giving rise to a vigorous and rich field of inquiry, the fruits of which have only begun to emerge. One reason for the relative neglect had been that we simply did not have much information about this period, which stretches from the end of the Babylonian exile (c. 539 BCE) to the advent of Alexander the Great and the beginning of the Hellenistic period (c. 330 BCE). Compared to the abundant archaeological and historical information available for the centuries before and after the Persian period, only a little evidence from outside the Bible was available to shed light on the two centuries after the exile. Yet recent decades have seen a surge in archaeological work focusing on this period that has provided a wealth of insights into economic, political, social, and religious realities in the Persian province of Yehud (the former kingdom of Judah). On the heels of this increased information has come an increased interest by biblicists. Now Persian period studies of all kinds are flourishing and contributing greatly to our appreciation of the challenging and contentious, yet theologically productive, period of the 6th–4th centuries.

One example of these studies is the work that has been done on the book of Haggai. This short book of thirty-eight verses focuses solely on the reconstruction of the Jerusalem temple that had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE. In the past, the book’s completely time-bound topic and lack of beautifully poetic, theologically rich passages had led to an unfavorable assessment of both book and prophet by many scholars and theologians. It was not that long ago, for example, that the authors of an introduction to the Old Testament stated that “Haggai is called a prophet, but compared to the pre-exilic prophets he is hardly deserving of the title…. his mind was concentrated only on earthly things…. His whole mental outlook and utilitarian religious point of view…is sufficient to show that he can have no place among the prophets in the real sense of the word.” (Oesterley & Robinson, 1961, pp. 408-9) This particularly blunt evaluation appears to have been shared by others, leading to the book’s general neglect. It simply did not seem to have much to offer the serious student of the Bible or, for that matter, of the history behind it.

But in recent decades the book of Haggai has been subjected to serious and sustained scrutiny by scholars such as Elie Assis and John Kessler, whose excellent work along with others has shown this short book to be much more interesting and complex than previously thought. My own work on Haggai, which engages the text through rhetorical analysis, joins this effort by seeking to reexamine the persuasive intention and strategies of the text (Barker, 2017). Rather than being simply a dull record of an uninteresting prophet and his mundane message, the book of Haggai is in fact a carefully composed and complex counterargument to serious objections to the reconstruction of the temple in 520 BCE. It is also an interpretation of what it meant either to accept or to reject the prophetic call to rebuild. This means that a careful study of the book as a persuasive text can contribute to our understanding of both the book and the nature of the debates surrounding the reconstruction of the temple in Jerusalem in the early years after the exile. This in turn contributes in a specific way not only to the emerging portrait of the early Persian period but also to our appreciation of the nature and strength of the struggles and conflicts among the people who considered themselves the surviving “remnant” of Israel in that time and place.

O livro

BARKER, J. R. Disputed Temple: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Haggai. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2017, 314 p.  – ISBN 9781506433141.


BARKER, J. R. Disputed Temple: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Haggai. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2017, 314 p.

The prophet Haggai advocated for the rebuilding of the temple, destroyed by Babylon, in the tumultuous period of reconstruction under Persian dominion; so much is evident from a surface reading of the book. John Robert Barker goes further, using rhetorical criticism of the prophet‘s arguments to tease out the probable attitudes and anxieties among the Yehudite community that saw rebuilding as both undesirable and unfeasible. While some in the community accepted the prophet‘s claim that YHWH wanted the temple built, others feared that adverse agricultural and economic conditions, as well as the lack of a royal builder, were clear signs that YHWH did not approve or authorize the effort. Haggai‘s counterarguments-that YHWH would provide for the temple‘s adornment, would bring prosperity to Yehud once the temple was built, and had designated the Davidide Zerubbabel as the chosen royal builder-are combined with his vilification of opponents as unclean and non-Israelite. Barker‘s study thus allows Haggai to shed further light on the socioeconomic conditions of early Persian-period Yehud.

A entrevista de Lula

A entrevista de Lula à mídia – por Luis Nassif [em 8 partes]

Lula concedeu entrevista para a imprensa agora de manhã, no Instituto Lula.

Participaram 14 jornalistas da mídia nacional, de blogs e de agências internacionais.

Inscrições reais de Babilônia

The Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online (RIBo) Project


Porta de Ishtar na cidade de Babilônia. Pergamonmuseum, Berlin

From the start of the Second Dynasty of Isin (1157-1026 BC) to the end of the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC), over 80 men claimed suzerainty over the land of Sumer and Akkad, an area roughly comprising modern-day southern Iraq; the number greatly increases to about 130 if one also includes the kings of the later Persian and Greek (Macedonian and Seleucid) Periods. These Babylonian rulers, some of whom proudly referred to themselves as the ‘king of Babylon’ (a title divinely sanctioned by that city’s tutelary deity, Marduk), had inscriptions officially commissioned in their names, sometimes to boast about an accomplishment of theirs (often the renovation of a temple or the construction of a palace or city wall) and sometimes to simply indicate that an object belonged to them.

Over 400 Akkadian and/or Sumerian royal inscriptions from these periods survive today. Those texts are preserved on more than 1,800 clay, metal, and stone objects, over half of which date to the reign of the famous Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC). The majority of these are assumed to have been unearthed in the ruins of one of the major cult centers of Babylonia: Babylon, Borsippa, Nippur, Sippar, Ur, and Uruk. Many of the bricks, clay cylinders, clay prisms, clay tablets, paving stones, foundation blocks, beads, etc. discovered through scientific archaeological excavations or illicit digs have made their way into numerous museum and private collections around the world; some objects, especially those that were too heavy to haul back to Europe or North America, were left and buried in the field by their excavators after their contents were recorded, copied, and/or photographed.

The aim of RIBo, a sub-project of the Official Inscriptions of the Middle East in Antiquity (OIMEA) Project, is to publish in a single place easily accessible and annotated (lemmatized) editions of all of the known Akkadian and Sumerian royal inscriptions from Babylonia that were composed between 1157 BC and 64 BC. RIBo’s contents are divided into several sub-projects, generally by “dynasty” or period. The “dynastic” numbering follows that of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Babylonian Periods (RIMB) publications of the now-defunct Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia (RIM) Project. The sub-project numbering is as follows:

“Babylon 1” = Kassite Period (1595-1155 BC).
“Babylon 2” = Second Dynasty of Isin (1157-1026 BC).
“Babylon 3” = Second Dynasty of the Sealand (1025-1005 BC).
“Babylon 4” = Bazi Dynasty (1004-985 BC).
“Babylon 5” = Elamite Dynasty (984-979 BC).
“Babylon 6” = Uncertain Dynasties (978-626 BC).
“Babylon 7” = Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC).
“Babylon 8” = Akkadian inscriptions of the Persian Period (538-330 BC), especially the now-famous “Cyrus Cylinder.”
“Babylon 9” = Macedonian rulers of Mesopotamia (currently no inscriptions known).
“Babylon 10” = Seleucid era (305-64 BC) official inscriptions written in Akkadian, especially the “Antiochus (Borsippa) Cylinder.”

The Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online (RIBo) Project is a component of Oracc – The Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus.

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Histórias de criação e dilúvio na antiga Mesopotâmia


Em vez de abraçar as enormes oportunidades de negócio sugeridas pelo sucesso em outras indústrias (cinema, tv e música), a publicação acadêmica tenta frear alguns avanços por meio de liminares judiciais. Até que serviço razoáveis por um preço justo se tornem disponíveis (netflix, itunes, spotify), os sites piratas irão prevalecer, não importa quão forte a indústria seja no tribunal. Contanto que o Sci-Hub e Alexandra permaneçam fora da jurisdição ocidental, não há razão para o Sci-Hub encerrar sua operação (morenovski).

Sci-Hub domains inactive following court order – By Andrew Silver: 23 Nov 2017

Por que o Sci-Hub, o Pirate Bay dos artigos acadêmicos, não resolve o problema – By morenovski: Mar 11, 2016

Sci-Hub. O site que dá acesso gratuito a artigos científicos –  Por Karla Pequenino – IHU Online: 29/08/2018

6 Corporations Own the Media and Most Scientific Publications in the World – By: Gaia Staff | August 2nd , 2017

‘Oligarquía académica’: Cómo 6 compañías controlan las publicaciones científicas del mundo – RT: 10 ago 2015

The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era – PLOS ONE: June 10, 2015

The Majority of Science Publishing is Controlled by Just Six Companies – Waking Times: July 30, 2015

Harvard University says it can’t afford journal publishers’ prices – The Guardian: 24 Apr 2012

Preço de periódicos científicos é insustentável, anuncia Harvard – Ensino Superior: 26/04/2012

KARAGANIS, J. (ed.) Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2018, 320 p. – ISBN 9780262535014.

Leia Mais:
World Wide Science
Artigos científicos no arXiv

Uma leitura possível sobre o Akitu

Um leitor me pergunta a propósito do post de 19 de outubro de 2017, Akitu – Festival do Ano Novo na Babilônia:

Se aconteciam duas celebrações em tempos distintos onde estão os relatos das celebrações de outono? Ou eles repetiam a mesma ritualística duas vezes ao ano? E mesmo que o fizessem quais seriam as diferenças, pois uma era para colher e outra para plantar?

Uma boa leitura, de pouco mais de 50 páginas, embora bastante técnica, pode ser feita em:

COHEN, M. E. The Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East. Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press, 1993, p. 400-453.

O bom é que o livro está disponível para download gratuito em The Internet Archive.

Confira aqui.

Escritores de ciência

Uma lista legal para quem gosta de aprender. Confira.

The 50 Best Science Writers of All Time – OnlineCollege.org

Being a great science writer means not only being able to convey frequently complex ideas and theories: it also involves being able to write in a way that keeps readers, even those who aren’t experts in the field, engaged and wanting to learn more about the subject. It’s a delicate balance to attain, but there have been many throughout the years who’ve managed to do it, though some with more grace than others. We’ve compiled a list of some of these science writing greats that any student should check out.

. Astronomy, Cosmology and Astrophysics
Through the work of these authors, readers can explore the farthest reaches of our universe, gain a better understanding of our own solar system and grasp the rules which govern it all.

. Physics and Mathematics
Check out these authors to teach yourself about the rules of matter, motion and the particles that make up the universe as we know it.

. Biological Sciences
These authors will help students and science enthusiasts alike to learn more about how biological organisms form, grow and change over time.

. Evolution and Genetics
Here, you’ll find some of the biggest and best minds in evolutionary science and genetics who shared their thoughts and research with a wider audience.

. Zoology and Naturalism
Those who love to read about the natural world will appreciate these great science writers who focused their careers on promoting the understanding and preservation of it.

. Human Body
Through the great works of these science writers, you’ll explore the mysteries of the human body and mind.

. Multi-Topic
These gifted writers focus on different topics throughout their writing, touching on fields like evolution, technology and paleontology.

. Oldies but Goodies
If you want to take in some classic science writers, these are all excellent choices, showing you where great science writing has its roots.

Imagem multiespectral ajuda arqueologia

What Is Multispectral Imaging And How Is It Changing Archaeology And Digital Humanities Today? By Sarah Bond – Forbes: Nov 30, 2017

What is multispectral imaging and how is the technology changing the face of archaeology, art history and digital humanities today? The non-invasive digital technique is making the past visible in ways we never thought possible.

In the world of archaeology and art history, even objects that have long been known to the world are now providing new information for researchers. This is in part due to an approach called multispectral imaging (MSI). Multispectral imaging first began as bulky and expensive remote sensing equipment used by high-tech astronomy labs like those at NASA interested in planetary science and mapping mineral deposits.

Improvements to sensors and apertures have downsized MSI technology and made it more cost-efficient in recent years. Consequently, the technique has become a more regularized part of the fields of digital archaeology and art preservation as a novel means of revealing hidden materials, pigments and inks that the naked eye alone cannot decipher.

The approach detects electromagnetic infrared radiation wavelengths and melds between three and five spectral imaging bands into one optical system. As Haida Liang, a professor at Nottingham Trent University and the Head of the Imaging & Sensing for Archaeology, Art History & Conservation (ISAAC) research group has noted, MSI can take three visible images in blue, green and red and can combine them with an infrared image and an X-ray image of an object in order to reveal minute hints of pigment. It can even reveal hidden drawings, stains or writings underneath various layers of paint or grime.

In a new paper studying a Hebrew ostracon from 600 BCE, the promise of MSI is exemplified. In antiquity, ceramic pot sherds were often used as a kind of scrap paper; however, the ink used on these ceramics can often fade, blur and become illegible. Professors at Tel-Aviv University led by mathematician and imaging specialist Shira Faigenbaum-Golovin used MSI on a number of ostraca predominantly from the southern Beer Sheba Valley and Jerusalem. Most dated to the time of the Kingdom of Judah (ca. 600 BCE) and one in particular revealed an amusing if familiar request of the writer: “If there is any wine, send [quantity].”

As the Tel-Aviv University researchers noted, MSI holds the potential to help us reconstruct the past in new ways: “These examples demonstrate that at least some of the ostraca have ink traces invisible to the naked eye that are detectable by MS photography. They also indicate that in certain cases MS imaging can provide good results even decades after excavation despite overall ink deterioration.”

Recursos gratuitos para estudos bíblicos

Best Free Bible Resources: Online Sites and Downloadable Apps/Programs – Biblical Studies and Technological Tools: September 3, 2017

I have … compiled an updated and more extensive list of the free Bible resources with which I am familiar. Some of these are capable of original language Hebrew and Greek work, but they are primarily oriented to English Bibles. (Some do feature an extensive collection of non-English Bibles.) Most of them offer basic search features, and some offer a variety of supporting resources. I like those that allow for viewing texts in parallel. If you know even a little Hebrew or Greek, the ones with sympathetic highlighting (Bible Web App, Lumina Bible) are especially helpful.