O Pai Nosso trata da fome, do endividamento, da opressão

A atuação de Jesus foi intensamente política. O Pai Nosso, a Oração do Senhor, fala, no seu contexto original, da opressão, do endividamento, da fome, da insegurança social. Jesus pregava o perdão das dívidas na sociedade palestina do século primeiro. Por isso foi preso e crucificado.

Quem diz isso?

OAKMAN, D. E. Jesus, Debt, and the Lord’s Prayer: First-Century Debt and Jesus’ Intentions.  Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2014, xx + 144 p.  – ISBN 9781498222518.OAKMAN, D. E. Jesus, Debt, and the Lord’s Prayer: First-Century Debt and Jesus’ Intentions.  Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2014

The Lord’s Prayer in Social Perspective, o terceiro capítulo deste livro, foi publicado pela primeira vez em CHILTON, B.; EVANS, C. E. (eds.) Authenticating the Words of Jesus. Leiden: Brill, 1999, p. 137-186. O texto pode ser lido aqui. Ou aqui.

 

Certa vez mencionei, em um artigo, os estudos de Douglas E. Oakman sobre o Pai Nosso:

Douglas E. Oakman, em um estudo sobre as condições de vida dos camponeses palestinos da época de Jesus, mostra que a violência que sofriam era brutal. Fraudes, roubos, trabalhos forçados, endividamento, perda da terra através da manipulação das dívidas atingiam a muitos. Existia uma violência epidêmica na Palestina.

E é neste contexto que Oakman propõe uma leitura radical do Pai Nosso. “Ele sugere” – diz R. L. Rohrbaugh – “que o pedido ‘perdoa-nos as nossas dívidas’ (Mt 6,12) refere-se aos processos nos quais os camponeses perdiam sua terra para os credores urbanos que sistematicamente exploravam as condições econômicas precárias em que viviam.

Além disso, argumenta Oakman, a prece final (Mt 6,13) ‘não nos ponha em teste’ – normalmente traduzida com a ideia anacrônica de não cair em tentação – é o apelo do camponês para que não seja levado a um tribunal de cobrança de dívidas e colocado diante de um juiz corrupto (‘mas livra-nos do Maligno’) cujo veredicto daria à expropriação de sua terra força de lei” (ROHRBAUGH, R. L. (ed.) The Social Sciences and New Testament Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003, p. 6).

Mt 6,12-13 diz: καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν· καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. εἰσενέγκῃς é um aoristo ingressivo e pode significar que alguém é arrastado e levado perante um juiz ou um tribunal (cf. Lc 12,11: “Quando vos conduzirem [εἰσφέρωσιν] às sinagogas, perante os principados e perante as autoridades, não fiqueis preocupados como ou com o que vos defender”). O genitivo πονηροῦ pode vir do neutro, significando o mal em geral, como a tradição latina o leu, influenciada por Santo Agostinho, ou pode vir do masculino, o Maligno, opção mais adequada à mentalidade dos primeiros cristãos. Assim o leram os Padres Orientais. É que o uso do neutro τὸ πονηρόν no sentido de “o mal” não pertence ao vocabulário do Novo Testamento, nem combina com a mentalidade semítica, que foge das abstrações. Cf. também HANSON, K. C.; OAKMAN, D. E. Palestine in the Time of Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts. 2. ed. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2008. Apesar da fascinante leitura de D. Oakman, a maioria dos especialistas lêem τοῦ πονηροῦ, tanto no masculino como no neutro em sentido escatológico, como no seguinte texto: “A decisão em favor de um ou de outro não modifica essencialmente a intenção do que foi dito por Mateus, porque aqui trata-se da realidade atual urgente e da realidade e atividade escatológica iminente do mal…” BALZ, H. ; SCHNEIDER, G. (eds.) Diccionario Exegético del Nuevo Testamento II. Salamanca: Sígueme, 1998, verbete πονηρός.

 

Na avaliação de Philip F. Esler, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire UK:

While the Lord’s Prayer is foundational for Christian belief and identity, no other scholar has done more in recent decades than Douglas Oakman to explore its original meaning in the context of Jesus’s life and ministry. With Oakman’s incisive and wide-ranging understanding of the first-century Palestinian world, that meaning comes to life in this volume as the inspiring and hope-filled expression of someone deeply and compassionately invested in the plight of the poor… Oakman brings the Lord’s Prayer to life for our world.

 

Da resenha de David A. Fiensy, publicada na RBL em 16.07.2015:

Since the author’s first publication of his essay “Jesus and Agrarian Palestine: The Factor of Debt” (Society of Biblical Literature 1985 Seminar Papers), his thesis of widespread indebtedness in the Galilee of Jesus’s time has been resonating in scholarly circles. Later Oakman added presentations on the Lord’s Prayer and on Jesus as a tax resister. These three essays are now collected here along with an introduction and brief conclusion to form his current offering.

Oakman’s thesis is that Jesus wanted debt forgiveness in first-century Palestinian society. Jesus had an explicitly “subversive revolutionary agenda” (41) that “attracted a following of people victimized by debt” (41). In addition, developing this theme further, Oakman maintains that Jesus was a tax resister who tried to alleviate indebtedness by avoiding payment of taxes and by distortion of the tax records (100). He compares Jesus with Judas of Gamla, both of whom were tax resisters (61, 101). Jesus was a political revolutionary, albeit not a violent one (117). Jesus’s ministry/activity was political and not about “religion or theology” (117). The  Lord’s Prayer was originally about “oppression, indebtedness, hunger, and social insecurity” (90).

Jesus advocated tax resistance as the “concrete expression of the kingdom of God” (94) and that, because of his tax resistance, Jesus was crucified.

 

Quem é Douglas E. Oakman?

Douglas E. Oakman has been with the faculty of Pacific Lutheran University since 1988. Prior to that he taught at Santa Clara University, the University of San Francisco, and San Francisco Theological Seminary. He was chair of the Religion Department from 1996-2003 and Dean of Humanities from 2004-2010.

Oakman has published numerous articles applying the social sciences to biblical studies. He is the author of Jesus and the Economic Questions of His Day (1986), with K. C. Hanson the award-winning Palestine in the Time of Jesus (second edition, 2008), Jesus and the Peasants (Cascade Books, 2008), The Political Aims of Jesus (2012), and Jesus, Debt, and the Lord’s Prayer (Cascade Books, 2014).

Resenhas na RBL – 17.07.2015

As seguintes resenhas foram recentemente publicadas pela Review of Biblical Literature:

Nathan J. Barnes
Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
Reviewed by Timothy A. Brookins

Richard J. Bautch and Jean-François Racine, eds.
Beauty and the Bible: Toward a Hermeneutics of Biblical Aesthetics
Reviewed by Richard Viladescu

Raffaella Cribiore
Libanius the Sophist: Rhetoric, Reality, and Religion in the Fourth Century
Reviewed by Thomas Olbricht

Roland Deines; Christoph Ochs and Peter Watts, eds.
Acts of God in History: Studies Towards Recovering a Theological Historiography
Reviewed by Wil Rogan

Leann Snow Flesher, Carol J. Dempsey, and Mark J. Boda, eds.
Why? … How Long? Studies on Voice(s) of Lamentation Rooted in Biblical Hebrew Poetry
Reviewed by George Savran

Greg W. Forbes
1 Peter: Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament
Reviewed by Terrance D. Callan

Lisbeth S. Fried
Ezra and the Law in History and Tradition
Reviewed by Thomas Hieke

Martin Heide
Das Testament Abrahams: Edition und Übersetzung der arabischen und äthiopischen Versionen
Reviewed by Curt Niccum

Clayton N. Jefford
The Epistle to Diognetus (with the Fragment of Quadratus): Introduction, Text, and Commentary
Reviewed by Jonathan A. Draper

Lance Jenott and Sarit Kattan Gribetz, eds.
Jewish and Christian Cosmogony in Late Antiquity
Reviewed by Steven Thompson

Hubert James Keener
A Canonical Exegesis of Psalm 8: YHWH’s Maintenance of the Created Order through Divine Reversal
Reviewed by Philippus J. Botha

Karl McDaniel
Experiencing Irony in the First Gospel: Suspense, Surprise and Curiosity
Reviewed by Glenna Jackson

Maciej M. Münnich
The God Resheph in the Ancient Near East
Reviewed by Michael S. Moore

Douglas E. Oakman
Jesus, Debt, and the Lord’s Prayer: First-Century Debt and Jesus’ Intentions
Reviewed by David A. Fiensy

Iain Provan
Seriously Dangerous Religion: What the Old Testament Really Says and Why It Matters
Reviewed by Richard S. Briggs

Robert M. Royalty Jr.
The Origin of Heresy: A History of Discourse in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity
Reviewed by Joseph Azize

Benjamin Sargent
David Being a Prophet: The Contingency of Scripture upon History in the New Testament
Reviewed by Kenneth D. Litwak

Ched Spellman
Toward a Canon-Conscious Reading of the Bible: Exploring the History and Hermeneutics of the Canon
Reviewed by John Barton

Rivka Ulmer and Moshe Ulmer
Righteous Giving to the Poor: Tzedakah (“Charity”) in Classic Rabbinic Judaism
Reviewed by Zev Garber

Samson Uytanlet
Luke-Acts and Jewish Historiography: A Study on the Theology, Literature, and Ideology of Luke-Acts
Reviewed by Andrew W. Pitts

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