Enoch and Qumran Origins: 47 pesquisadores debatem o tema

BOCCACCINI, G. (ed.) Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005, xviii + 472 p. – ISBN 9780802828781.

Henoc e as origens de Qumran: nova luz sobre uma conexão esquecida é o resultado do segundo seminário sobre a literatura henóquica, The Enoch Seminar. Este é o primeiro e mais completo exame das complexas e esquecidas relações existentes entre a comunidade de Qumran e o grupo judaico que produziu a literatura pseudepígrafa de Henoc. Este livro conta com a colaboração de 47 pesquisadores de 11 países. Os ensaístas demonstram que as raízes da comunidade de Qumran devem ser buscadas na tradição do grupo henóquico muito mais do que no sacerdócio de Jerusalém.

A introdução é de Gabriele Boccaccini e a conclusão de James Charlesworth.

As cinco partes do livro examinam, sob diferentes ângulos, as hipóteses de 5 eminentes pesquisadores da área: John J. Collins (Dream Visions and Daniel), James C. VanderKam (Enoch and Jubilees), George W. E. Nickelsburg (The Apocalypses of Weeks), Florentino García Martínez (The Groningen Hypothesis Revisited) e Gabriele Boccaccini (The Enochic-Essene Hypothesis Revisited). No final de cada parte o autor da respectiva hipótese responde às questões levantadas.

O que dizer de um livro onde estão reunidos os especialistas mais conceituados da área? Que o livro representa o “state of-the-art” e, ao mesmo tempo, “first-class research at its best”…

Novidades na bibliografia da Ayrton’s Biblical Page

Livros novos acrescentados à bibliografia comentada da Ayrton’s Biblical Page.

Sobre apocalíptica:

  • COLLINS, John J.; McGINN, Bernard; STEIN, Stephen J. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism: Vol. 1: The Origins of Apocalypticism in Judaism and Christianity, 520 p.; Vol. 2: Apocalypticism in Western History and Culture, 544 p.; Vol. 3: Apocalypticism in the Modern Period and the Contemporary Age, 520 p. New York: Continuum, 2000.
  • COOK, Stephen L. The Apocalyptic Literature. Nashville: Abingdon, 2003. 233 p.
  • GRABBE, Lester; HAAK, Robert D. (eds.) Knowing the End from the Beginning: The Prophetic, Apocalyptic and Their Relationships. London: T & T Clark, 2004. ix + 226 p.

Sobre profetismo:

  • MEIN, A. Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. xii + 298 p.

Novo livro de Israel Finkelstein e Neil Asher Silberman vem aí

Dos autores do consagrado The Bible Unearthed (tradução brasileira: A Bíblia desenterrada), vem aí novo livro. Desta vez sobre Davi e Salomão e sobre o que deles se falou e se pode falar hoje.

FINKELSTEIN, I.; SILBERMAN, N. A. David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible’s Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. New York: The Free Press, 2006, 352 p.

A editora oferece a seguinte descrição da obra:

FINKELSTEIN, I.; SILBERMAN, N. A. David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible’s Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. New York: The Free Press, 2006The exploding number of discoveries of biblical archaeology – artifacts and texts found at hundreds of sites populated in the ancient Near East – have shed powerful beams of light on the characters and peoples in the Bible. Most of the resulting public controversies have focused on whether or not the history in the Bible is true. Yet ultimately, there are two larger questions that matter more: exactly how did the Bible evolve into its final form, over the centuries-long process of its compilation, and what does that history tell us about the traditions we have inherited and that still stamp our memories?

In David and Solomon, Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, leading archaeologists and authors who have done a great deal to uncover and understand the breathtaking findings of their field, focus on the first two great kings of the Bible as a lens through which we can see the evolution of the entire biblical era. The Bible’s chapters and verses on David and his son were written in stages, over many hundreds of years, by authors living in very different circumstances. Thanks to a combination of textual analysis and archaeology, we now know a great deal about which parts of the story were written in which era, and why those particular societies might have added to the legend precisely as they did. In short, David and Solomon offers a guide to a thousand years of ancient civilization and the evolution of a tradition of kingly leadership that held sway throughout the West for much of our history.

The earliest folklore and verses about David depict a bandit leader, hiding in the mountains, leading a small gang of traveling raiders (which fits what we know of the ninth century B.C.E.). That bandit may well be the “true” David. In later periods, authors added images of David as a poet, as the founder of a great dynasty, as a political in-fighter, and (perhaps most famously) as a sinner. All of these images made sense for the authors who created them, and a similar evolution of Solomon from the builder of the Temple, to expander of his empire, to wise sage, to rich trader similarly reflects the successive stages of history up to the time of Jesus. Ultimately, David and Solomon came to embody a tradition of divinely inspired kings and even messiahs, the forerunners of Jesus and of the great kings of Europe throughout the Middle Ages.

David and Solomon shows how the stories built around two men reflect the very roots of the western tradition and explains a great deal of why the Bible appears as it does.

Na página da Free Press pode-se ler a Introdução do livro. Cito alguns trechos apenas:

Archaeology is today the most important tool at our disposal for reconstructing the evolution of ancient Israelite society. Elsewhere in the ancient world, archaeological Israel Finkelsteinresearch has also transformed our vision of the past (…) The discrepancies between art and literature, on the one hand, and documented, verifiable history and archaeological evidence, on the other, have made us see the founder myths of antiquity for what they are: shared expressions of ancient communal identity, told with great power and insight, still interesting and worthy of study, but certainly not to be taken as literal, credible records of events.

Such is the case with David and Solomon, who are depicted in the biblical narrative as founding fathers of the ancient Israelite state. Yet we can now say – as we will argue in considerable detail throughout this book – that many of the famous episodes in the biblical story of David and Solomon are fictions, historically questionable, or highly exaggerated. In the following chapters we will present archaeological evidence to show that there was no united monarchy of Israel in the way that the Bible describes it. Although it seems probable that David and Solomon were actual historical characters, they were very different from their scriptural portraits. We will show that it is highly unlikely that David ever conquered territories of peoples more than a day or two’s march from the heartland of Judah. We will suggest that Solomon’s Jerusalem was neither extensive nor impressive, but rather the rough hilltop stronghold of a local dynasty of rustic tribal chiefs. Yet the point of this book is not simply to debunk stories from the Bible. Alone among the great legends of Near Eastern and classical antiquity, the Bible retains its power to inspire hopes and dreams for living communities around the world even today. Our goal is to show how the legends of David and Solomon developed, and how they came to guide western thinking and shape western religious and political traditions in important ways.

As we proceed through the following chapters, we will analyze and attempt to date the various layers of the biblical story, describing the main issues in the now-bitter scholarly disagreements about its historical reliability, and presenting new archaeological evidence that is central to that debate. We will show, step by step, period by period, how the historical reality of ancient Judah – as revealed by archaeological research – gave rise both to a dynasty and to a legend that was transformed and expanded in a process of historical reinterpretation that continues even today.

A historiografia deuteronomista à luz das pesquisas recentes

Escrevendo um artigo sobre o Contexto da Obra Histórica Deuteronomista para o próximo número da revista Estudos Bíblicos (n. 88), e agora elaborando meu programa de aula de Literatura Deuteronomista para 2006, li uma parte deste livro que eu já havia comentado, rapidamente, em minha bibliografia.

O livro é composto por 14 ensaios produzidos por vários autores em um seminário do terceiro ciclo realizado em 1995 pelas Faculdades de Teologia de Fribourg, Genève, Lausanne e Neuchâtel, todas da Suíça francesa.

Studien zum Deuteronomium und zur deuteronomistischen Literatur

Três estudos interessantes sobre o Deuteronômio e a Obra Histórica Deuteronomista.

  • KNOPPERS, G. N.; McCONVILLE J. G. (eds.) Reconsidering Israel and Judah: Recent Studies on the Deuteronomistic History. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2000.
  • LOHFINK, N. Studien zum Deuteronomium und zur deuteronomistischen Literatur V. Stuttgart: Katholische Bibelwerk, 2005.
  • RÖMER, T. C. (ed.) The Future of the Deuteronomic History. Leuven: Leuven University Press/Peeters, 2000.

 

M. Daniel Carrol R.: um excelente estudo sobre o profeta Amós

Preparando minhas aulas de Literatura Profética, fiquei impressionado com os elogios de quatro resenhas sobre o livro de

CARROLL R., M. D. Amos – The Prophet and His Oracles: Research on the Book of Amos. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2009, xiv + 224 p. – ISBN  9780664224554.

Todos os resenhistas chamam a atenção para a excelência e importância do livro e o recomendam como leitura obrigatória para quem quiser entender a pesquisa atual sobre Amós e os rumos que ela tomará nos próximos anos.

Diz Petronella Verwijs, Corona, Califórnia:

I have no doubt that this book will contribute to a continued investigation into the book of Amos. I myself, after reading this book, am greatly encouraged to continue my part of the task.

Diz James Linville, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canadá:

The author has provided the academic community with a fine review and a well-balanced outlook on the prospects for academic and socially engaged scholarship into Amos and the value in multiple approaches to the book. His noncompromising stance on reading Amos for something opens the “disinterested” scholar to a new world of imaginative and impassioned readings.

Diz Mark Mcentire, Belmont University Nashville, Tennessee:

For at least several years this volume will serve as an ideal starting point for anyone entering the field of scholarship on Amos. Carroll R. has his own agenda, and it feels rather strange to read as he
describes his own work in the third person, but he is a reliable guide to past scholarship and developing trends in Amos studies. The extensive bibliographies in this book have the potential to save readers many hours of their own searching.

Diz Barry A. Jones (na CBQ), Campbell University Divinity School, Buies Creek, North Carolina:

M. Daniel Carroll R. has created a unique resource for the study of Amos that offers both an introduction to scholarship and a tool for further research. He combines a well-organized, up-to-date, and widely inclusive bibliography with introductory essays reflecting on the study of Amos past, present and future. The resulting book puts the fruit of over two centuries of scholarship into the hands of students and scholars.

O Jesus Histórico na pesquisa recente, segundo James Dunn e colegas

Três livros com James D. G. Dunn, mundialmente famoso por sua obra sobre Paulo: dois livros dele e um editado por ele e Scot McKnight.

Este último é uma coletânea bem abrangente, com ensaios de P. S. Alexander, D. C. Allison, P. W. Barnett, M. J. Borg, R. Bultmann, H. J. Cadbury, P. M. Casey, G. B. Caird, B. Chilton, C. E. B. Cranfield, J. D. G. Dunn, R. A. Horsley, J. Jeremias, M. Kähler, W. G. Kümmel, E. E. Lemcio, A.-J. Levine, G. Luedemann, J. P. Meier, B. F. Meyer, R. Morgan, J. A. T. Robinson, E. P. Sanders, A. Schweitzer, K. R. Snodgrass, G. N. Stanton, P. Stuhlmacher, G. Theissen, N. T. Wright.

Um livro é de 2003 e dois são de 2005. Todos eles nos ajudam a compreender melhor quem foi Jesus de Nazaré. E situam o leitor na pluralidade das tendências da pesquisa atual sobre o Jesus Histórico.

 

BILDI: Bibliografia sobre literatura bíblica

BILDI é uma sigla para Bibelwissenschaftliche Literaturdokumentation Innsbruck. Trata-se de um excelente banco de dados bibliográfico sobre literatura bíblica.

Do Departamento para Estudos Bíblicos e Teologia Fundamental da Faculdade de Teologia Católica da Universidade Leopold Franz de Innsbruck, Áustria. Em alemão e inglês.

A campanha do faraó Shoshenq I na Palestina

Em setembro de 2004, o Professor de Estudos Bíblicos do Lithuania Christian College, Klaipeda, Lituânia, Kevin A. Wilson, publicou ensaio na revista online Bible and Interpretation sobre a tão debatida campanha do Faraó Shoshenq I (também grafado como Shishaq I) na Palestina no século X a.C. – supostamente após a morte de Salomão e a divisão de um “reino unido” em Israel e Judá – sob o título: The Campaign of Pharaoh Shoshenq I in Palestine. E, concluía assim seu texto:

 

The beginning of this paper discussed the current debate over the dating of 10th century archaeological strata and the reliance on destruction levels left by Shoshenq. Although the current study does not decide the issue one way or the other, it does show that both sides are mistaken in searching for destruction layers left by the Egyptian campaign. As has been shown above, Shoshenq’s campaign was not as widespread as previously thought. Instead, it focused only on Jerusalem, and Jerusalem itself was not destroyed. This means that archaeologists will need to find another method for determining the date of 10th century strata. It also means that they will need to find other suspects for the destruction layers previously assigned to Shoshenq. This should not be difficult, however, since the 10th and early 9th centuries saw a great deal of fighting in Palestine, both between Judah and Israel, as well as between Israel and neighboring states. And, of course, the Israelites kingship changed hands several times through military coups during that period, so the causes of these destruction may have been internal. In any event, it is clear that the campaign of Shoshenq can play little role in the dating of 10th century archaeological strata.

Agora, em 2005, acaba de sair pela editora Mohr Siebeck, de Tübingen, Alemanha, o seu livro sobre o assunto:

WILSON, Kevin A. The Campaign of Pharaoh Shoshenq I into Palestine. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005, VIII + 159 p.

Assim a editora apresenta o livro:

 

The thesis of this book is that the campaign by Pharaoh Shoshenq I into Palestine in 926 B.C.E. was aimed solely at the kingdom of Judah with the purpose of supporting Jeroboam in his bid to rule Israel as a separate nation. The evidence for this campaign comes from the Hebrew Bible (1 Kgs 14:25-28; 2 Chr 12:1-12), a triumphal relief of Shoshenq at Karnak, and a fragment of a stele at Megiddo. Prior studies have attempted to reconstruct the route of the Egyptian army’s march through studies of the topographical list that accompanies the triumphal relief of Shoshenq. By contrast, Kevin Wilson examines several major examples of triumphal reliefs erected by pharaohs of the New Kingdom in order to understand the genre as a whole. After a survey of other Egyptian texts considered pertinent to the campaign, the rest of this study is devoted to an analysis of the biblical texts that record the attack. The data gleaned from these analyses are then used to reconstruct the aim and purpose of the campaign. The reconstruction offered suggests that Shoshenq made his attack as part of a concerted effort to bring disunity to the region through the support of Jeroboam, whom he had harbored as a political refugee from Solomon. This foreign policy led to Egypt’s position vis-a-vis the southern Levant being greatly improved. It removed a powerful kingdom that could have been a threat to Egypt, left the nations of Palestine fighting among themselves, and provided Shoshenq with a vassal state in the region.

Uma interessante discussão sobre a rota de Shoshenq I e as soluções oferecidas por Kevin A. Wilson começou na lista de discussão biblical-studies, com participações de Yigal Levin, Philip Davies, Niels Peter Lemche… apesar do clima de fim de ano… Confira o arquivo da lista a partir desta mensagem!