Um bom artigo sobre o roubo de antiguidades no Iraque.
Lost: The Looting of Iraq’s Antiquities.
Para se perceber a gravidade da situação, um trecho do artigo:
The only real comparison is to the surface of the moon. Craters as deep as 16 feet cover multi-acre sites that are remnants of what is widely considered the cradle of civilization. The craggy, arid earth, all but barren of vegetation, lies in mounds alongside the deep pits where thousands of Iraqi antiquities—cuneiform tablets, ancient scrolls and kings commemorated in stone that might give clues to how civilization began—have been ripped from their resting places and sold to nefarious (or unsuspecting) dealers and collectors. Some sites have been so ravaged that the top 10 feet of earth and all of the irreplaceable artifacts buried there for centuries are gone. Amid the catastrophe of the war in Iraq—the violence, bloodshed and loss of human life—is the loss of the world’s cultural heritage in the form of hoards of antiquities. It is an ongoing, silent tragedy for which there seems to be no viable solution. Sources say this is not the work of renegades with shovels. It is planned and executed by organized bands—200 to 300 per site—with heavy machinery at many of the 12,000 sites. And the payout is big. The average Iraqi makes the equivalent of $1,000 per year, yet a cache of looted antiquities can sell for $20,000. And looters can sell two or three such caches every week.
Publicado pela American Association of Museums em o número de Janeiro/Fevereiro de 2007 de Museum News. Artigo de Susan Breitkopf.
A resenha que Jim West está escrevendo sobre o documentário em DVD feito a partir da obra de Finkelstein/Silberman, The Bible Unearthed (em português: A Bíblia desenterrada) está começando a provocar debate. Ainda bem. Isto é proveitoso.
A minha posição sobre esta obra, que utilizo desde seu lançamento em 2001, está definida nos textos da Ayrton’s Biblical Page e em artigos e livros impressos.
The Bible Unearthed (escrito por Stephen L. Cook em Biblische Ausbildung – 19.01.2007; texto impresso publicado em 2002)
Ideology Indeed (escrito por Duane Smith em Abnormal Interests – 19.01.2007)
Finkelstein & Silberman: The Bible Unearthed (resenha da obra na Ayrton’s Biblical Page)
A editora Targumim, que publicou a primeira Gramática do Aramaico Bíblico no Brasil, está comunicando o lançamento de mais duas importantes obras.
WILSON, Robert R. Profecia e Sociedade no Antigo Israel. 2. ed. revista. São Paulo: Targumim/Paulus, 2006, 392 p. – ISBN 9798599459033
Este estudo de Robert R. Wilson – original inglês de 1980 – havia sido publicado pela Paulus em 1993 e estava esgotado. É uma obra importante, pois o enfoque socioantropológico aplicado à profecia produz interessantes resultados.
Como diz a apresentação da obra, na publicação original, na página da editora Fortress Press:
Using comparative anthropology to get at the social dimensions of prophetic activity, Robert Wilson’s study brings the study of Isrealite prophecy to a new level. Looking at both modern societies and Ancient Near Eastern ones, Wilson sketches the nature of prophetic activity, its social location, and its social functions. He then shows how these features appear in Israelite prophecy and sketches a history of prophecy in Israel.
VON RAD, G. Teologia do Antigo Testamento. 2. ed. totalmente revisada. São Paulo: Aste/Targumim, 2006, 904 p. – ISBN 9788599459027
Teologia do Antigo Testamento é um clássico escrito por Gerhard von Rad – um dos maiores estudiosos do Antigo Testamento do século XX – na década de 50 do século passado, em alemão. Hoje já está datada sob muitos aspectos, mas, na época, revolucionou o modo como se compreendia a Teologia do Antigo Testamento. De qualquer maneira, datado ou não, um clássico deve sempre ser lido.
Há uma tradução da obra no Brasil, pela Aste, mas que é notadamente ruim. Agora, em segunda edição totalmente revisada, publicada pela Aste/Targumim, espera-se uma qualidade melhor.
Jim West continua hoje sua resenha do documentário The Bible Unearthed: The Making of a Religion, que classifiquei no sumário do blog sob o marcador, etiqueta, rótulo ou “label” se quiser, arqueologia.
O primeiro episódio tratou dos patriarcas. Neste segundo episódio o assunto é o êxodo. Não perca de jeito nenhum o post The Bible Unearthed: The DVD- A 4 Part Review– Part 2.
Quem, em 2 de novembro de 2006, leu o meu post The Bible Unearthed de Finkelstein e Silberman vira filme, agora pode apreciar uma resenha do documentário em DVD feita por Jim West, começando, hoje, com The Bible Unearthed: The DVD- A 4 Part Review– Part 1.
Também hoje, passando pela editora francesa Bayard, encontrei a indicação de que outro livro de Finkelstein/Silberman, aquele sobre Davi e Salomão, foi traduzido no ano passado para o francês. Veja:
FINKELSTEIN, I. & SILBERMAN, N. A. Les rois sacrés de la Bible: a la recherche de David et Salomon. Traduction: Patrice Ghirardi. Paris: Bayard, 2006, 336 p. ISBN – 2227472243
Diz a apresentação:
…L’archéologie biblique est devenue un champ de mines en passe de faire exploser toutes nos représentations traditionnelles, et notre lecture de la Bible. Le grand archéologue Israël Finkelstein avait tenu, dans La Bible dévoilée, à décrypter pour nous les découvertes les plus récentes qui bouleversaient notre connaissance des origines de la Bible. Avec Les rois sacrés de la Bible, il s’attaque à présent à la légende royale et messianique de David et Salomon qui s’est répandue dans l’ensemble du monde occidental. La Bible célèbre David et son fils Salomon sous les traits de valeureux guerriers et conquérants, d’amants légendaires, de poètes visionnaires, de bâtisseurs pionniers et de modèles de gouvernance et d’autorité politique… Mais les dernières découvertes archéologiques ébranlent notre représentation traditionnelle. Nous avons la preuve, à présent, que leur histoire relève davantage du mythe et de la légende. Selon Finkelstein et Silberman, le David de l’histoire, au Xe siècle avant notre ère, n’était que le chef de bande d’une petite localité appelée Jérusalem. Ce n’est qu’à partir de la fin du VIIIe siècle que leur légende prit de l’ampleur. On apprend que Goliath pourrait avoir été un mercenaire grec, que Salomon n’a probablement pas construit le célèbre Temple de Jérusalem… La légende de ces rois mythiques naît dans un monde tiraillé entre les nationalismes conflictuels et un empire mondialisé en pleine effervescence. David et Salomon deviendront alors des messies, des symboles d’espoir non seulement pour le judaïsme mais également pour le christianisme et toute l’histoire religieuse et politique de l’Occident. Voici un livre qui fera date, lucide et documenté, écrit par deux sommités de l’histoire et de l’archéologie bibliques.
Dias atrás Mark Goodacre no post Latest Tyndale Tech: Web Bible Tools chamou a atenção dos leitores de seu Mark Goodacre’s NT Blog para o Tyndale Tech. E explicou para os que não conhecem o fenômeno: If you are unfamiliar with the Tyndale Tech phenomenon, this is an occasional email from David Instone-Brewer of Tyndale House, Cambridge, UK, which is always full of interesting helps for the those looking to expand their knowledge of and expertise in technical helps for Biblical study.
Mark Goodacre apontou para o link Finding the Right Web Tool for the Job.
Aí estão indicadas as seguintes ferramentas para o estudo online da Bíblia:
The NeXt Bible – provavelmente a melhor ferramenta para um estudo genérico da Bíblia
The Bible Tool – a melhor ferramenta para comparar textos originais e traduções
Blue Letter Bible – ferramenta para fazer breves análises de vocabulário
The Resurgence Greek Project – a melhor ferramenta para fazer análise do vocabulário grego
Greek New Testament – a melhor ferramenta para o estudo das variantes do Novo Testamento Grego e para a crítica textual
Para os especialistas em estudos bíblicos, David Instone-Brewer indica:
TanakhML Project/Verse Structure Analyser – analisa os versículos dos livros em prosa da Bíblia Hebraica, com os sinais massoréticos
Tyndale Unicode Bibles – Bíblias em Hebraico e Grego em documentos Word usando fontes Unicode
WWW Links for Biblical Studies – links para todo tipo de Bíblia em inglês, para Bíblias nas línguas originais, para versões antigas em latim, siríaco etc e para facsímiles de manuscritos bíblicos.
O texto lembra que estes recursos são bons especialmente para quem não possui um BibleWorks, um Accordance, um Logos ou outro software especializado – e caro, acrescento eu – para pesquisa bíblica.
Criaram um Atlas Bíblico que usa as fotos de satélite e os mapas do Google para indicar localidades bíblicas.
Hoje vi no Blogos o texto Bible Mapping Sites onde se aprofunda o assunto, mostrando que a iniciativa é interessante, mas que este tipo de ferramenta poderia ser bem mais desenvolvida, utilizando muitos outros recursos da web.
Vale a pena ler o que escreveu Sean Boisen.
Bible Mapping Sites – January 13, 2007
The ESV Blog had a post last week about BibleMap.org, a new interactive mapping application that combines the ESV Bible text, a Google Maps display, and articles from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE). So you can find a passage, click on the hyperlinks for place names, and see a satellite picture of e.g. where Nazareth is actually located (unfortunately, Google can’t show you what it looked like 2000 years ago!).
Of course, it’s wonderful that people are making these kinds of applications available: thinking about the place names in the Bible is an essential part of really understanding the context, though i suspect most Bible readers tend to simply gloss over them. This kind of tight integration can help bring the world of the Bible alive to modern readers.
Nevertheless, without faulting the creators of this site, i can’t help but wish for more:
:. This is a classic example of a stovepipe application: while it’s got a lot of useful data (linking verses to place names, place names to lat-longs, and place names to ISBE articles), all of that data is embedded in the application (the website) itself. That’s fine if all you want is to use it, but not if you want to re-use it. If instead there were a web service behind this, there could be multiple versions of this same basic capability, without having to re-engineer the basic data. I’ve ridden the hobby horse of data before applications before, and this is a basic tenet of Web 2.0 thinking. The most recent version of New Testament Names has some Google Earth data (which i used for this map in my SBL presentation) for just this reason, though (like BibleMap.org) it’s not complete.
:. I can easily guess why they chose the ISBE: it’s the most comprehensive Bible reference work in the public domain. But it’s not the most up-to-date (if it were, it probably wouldn’t be in the public domain!), and the depth of information sometimes goes well beyond what casual readers want. Which raises the fundamental question: what’s the right level of information for a reference like this? Most readers won’t care about proximity to modern archaeological sites, and would instead rather have basic information like best guesses as to how large a town was, prominent physical features, etc. Much of this information doesn’t exist in ISBE (or other resources, for that matter).
:. Once you start down the road of information integration (using hyperlinks or other mechanisms), you hate to stop. Wouldn’t it be great if the ISBE text itself was also hyperlinked with place names? The first part of the ISBE article on Nazareth reads
“A town in Galilee, the home of Joseph. and the Virgin Mary, and for about 30 years the scene of the Saviour’s life (Matthew 2:23; Mark 1:9; Luke 2:39,51; 4:16, etc.). He was therefore called Jesus of Nazareth, although His birthplace was Bethlehem; …”
Unsurprisingly, definitions for place names typically use other place names to put things in context. Without the hyperlinks here, the text becomes a bit of a dead-end.
:. Their display for John 1:28 shows a classic example of why simple string matching gets you most, but not quite all, of the way: Bethany isn’t the same as “Bethany beyond the Jordan”. Happily, there are few enough of these cases in the Bible texts that they can generally be fixed by hand: but having fixed them, that disambiguation becomes another critical piece of data that shouldn’t be stovepiped.
:. Viewing a little of the geographic context mostly leaves me wanting more. Back to my example of Nazareth: i’d like to see additional overlays of other towns (and of course, that’s specific to the context of a given passage) as well as other features like travel routes and named bodies of water, since showing that town alone doesn’t tell you much. There’s also the subtle issue of what’s the right zoom level: for Matt.4.13, you’d want the map to show both Nazareth and Capernaum, rather than being closely focused in on Nazareth alone.
It’s always easier to critique than to create, i know. My point is simply this: while these early integrations of open tools like Google Maps with Bible study applications are exciting, much more is still possible.
Notícia enviada pela Profa. Dra. Cláudia A. P. Ferreira, da FL/UFRJ: John Dominic Crossan virá ao Brasil para participar do I Seminário Internacional sobre o Jesus Histórico em outubro de 2007.
Leia um interessantíssimo artigo autobiográfico de Crossan em
Memories? What you remember, what you forget, and, most unnervingly of all, what is in there somewhere, forgotten but recoverable with some accidental and external prompting. My mother carefully boxed and stored the youthful debris of her three children. After she died, I found a forgotten pocket diary I kept in 1948. It covered the Winter and Spring terms of my third year in high school.
Thursday, April 1st: “Shot and wounded two homing pigeons, breaking their wings. Dickens of a row. How was I too know they were homing pigeons. That shook them anyway.”
Minor misspelling, minor exculpation, minor defiance, of course, but a single reading brought it all back. My father had a .22 rifle I was allowed to use only out in the countryside and under his supervision. I had shot it from our backyard into one of our neighbor’s trees. “Dickens of a row!” A long forgotten incident, in a long forgotten diary. The reading brings back unmentioned details and prompts the necessary inclusion of others. Thus: I must have been at home for that to happen; so it must have been Easter break from boarding high school; so Easter Sunday must have been the preceding March 28 in 1948. Memory as reconstruction, not just remembrance.
Back to the beginning. My parents lived in Portumna, Co. Galway, a town in Ireland too smaIl to have a good hospital. So my mother went to nearby Nenagh, Co. Tipperary, where I was born in 1934. My father was a banker. Since the Irish banking system involved a head-office in Dublin and branches throughout the country, each promotion entailed a transfer. Home never meant for me a fixed house or even a fixed town. Home was where you were.
Grade school was in Naas, Co. Kildare, a large market town about twenty miles from Dublin. On long walks along the Dublin road, when I was nine or ten, my father recited poetry which I then memorized. The price, say, for “Gungha Din,” complete and correct by the end of the walk, was sixpence. My father is gone now, so is the sixpenny piece, and so, through the new bypass, is the Dublin road. I have been asked recently whether an Irish background influenced my understanding of Jesus as a peasant resister to imperial aggression. Here is what I recognize and remember.
I grew up among the first generation of post-colonial Irish in the protected lee of the foundering British Empire. I spent 1945 to 1950 at St. Eunan’s College, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. This county is connected to the Republic by a narrow sliver of land, surrounded on all its non-Atlantic sides by Northern Ireland, then as now a part of Britain. This schooling bred strange anomalies. All instruction was in Gaelic, but the curriculum was adopted bodily from the elite private schools of England. So in Irish History class, I learned the awful things Britain had done to Ireland. Against empire, therefore? But in courses on the Greek and Roman classics, with texts chosen by British education to prepare its youth for imperial administration, I learned, say, from Caesar’s Gallic Wars, to admire the syntax and ignore the slaughter. Even of our ancient Celtic ancestors. For empire, therefore?
On festive occasions, when the boarding students were released to visit their local relatives, I usually went to a paternal uncle-in-law. When he was a little drunk (that is, on all festive occasions), he would show me from a well-greased rag beneath his bed a Luger, used not in the fight for Irish independence but in the Irish civil war which immediately succeeded its partial acceptance.[one_half]
From all of that pedagogical confusion I still hold two truths with equal and fundamental certainty. One: the British did terrible things to the Irish. Two: the Irish, had they the power, would have done equally terrible things to the British. And so also for any other paired adversaries I can imagine. The difficulty is to hold on to both truths with equal intensity, not let either one negate the other, and know when to emphasize one without forgetting the other. Our humanity is probably lost and gained in the necessary tension between them both. I hope, by the way, that I do not sound anti-British. It is impossible not to admire a people who gave up India and held on to Northern Ireland. That shows a truly Celtic sense of humor.
I still hold two truths with equal and fundamental certainty. One: the British did terrible things to the Irish. Two: the Irish, had they the power, would have done equally terrible things to the British. … The difficulty is to hold on to both truths with equal intensity, not let either one negate the other, and know when to emphasize one without forgetting the other.
My paternal grandparents were lower-class farmers and my maternal grandparents were middle-class urban shopkeepers. (I say poor farmers and not peasants because, unlike peasants whose surplus is expropriated by elite force, with them there was no force, and no surplus either.) When I stayed at their respective homes in the very early forties, my father’s family was still living well outside the nearest town, Letterkenny in County Donegal. They had a white-washed thatch-roofed cottage with an open fireplace for cooking, no internal plumbing, chickens and one goat for animals, donkey and trap for transportation. My mother’s family lived in a market town, Ballymote in County Sligo, above and beside their shop in a house with standard plumbing. But does that early experience with my paternal grandparents sufficiently explain why I made Jesus a peasant instead of, like my other grandparents, a shopkeeper, running a carpentry business out of his home in Nazareth? I admit, however, to a definite prejudice towards those paternal grandparents. Where else could you chase chickens, ride a donkey, and annoy a goat sufficiently to make it charge?
Many representatives from monastic orders spoke at my high school. One, from the Servite Order caught my imagination more than any of the others. After graduating in 1950, I entered the American province of this thirteenth-century Roman Catholic monastic order. And so, one early morning in October 1951. I stood on the deck of the Queen Mary with the Statue of Liberty slipping behind to port as we moved up the Hudson to the Cunard docks.
The Servite major seminary was near Chicago but we students lived in complete isolation from the outside world. Monastic life meant celibacy and liturgy, work and recreation, silence and study. The curriculum was designed for safety rather than originality; obedience was the supreme virtue; discussion and debate were hardly encouraged. Still, there was the library, and thoughts could always be kept to oneself. After two years of philosophy and four of theology I was ordained a priest in May, 1957.
From those years I still love Gregorian Chant, which I sang very badly for three or four hours in daily choir, and the Bible. My teacher, Neal Flanagan inserted the Bible, with competence and enthusiasm, into the general aridity of thomistic philosophy, scholastic theology, and canon law. I was about twenty-two before I knew the Bible was anything more than a quarry for liturgy. That means, irrevocably, that I see the historical Jesus, the New Testament, and early Christianity with a Roman Catholic, not with a Protestant, sensibility. This Roman Catholic sensibility is not automatically right or wrong, but it is inevitably different from the Protestant. And it is a sensibility, not a baptismal certification, ecclesiastical designation, or denominational acceptation.
I went to Maynooth College for my theological doctorate in 1957. It is the national seminary of Ireland, founded about two hundred years ago by the British Crown in order to keep Irish clerics away from the European continent and radical ideas away from Irish clerics. When I entered, it was no longer under the British Crown but was still dedicated to its original purpose. Still, after six years of monastic isolation, even Maynooth was wonderful. I finished the degree in two years but also spent hours of remedial reading every day. I read the complete works of anyone worth reading for the last hundred years. I also discovered film, and remember a Saturday afternoon when the Dublin Film Society showed, without subtitles, a film just released called The Seventh Seal. Imagine Bergman without warning.
In 1959, with a shiny new doctorate, I went to the Biblical Institute in Rome to specialize in the Bible for two years. The curriculum presumed Hebrew and Greek, demanded extra biblical languages each year, involved much detailed textual analysis, but was terribly weak on self-conscious method and self-critical theory. Those omissions were not exactly accidental since that way danger lay. But the years from 1959 to 1961 were a marvelous time to be in Rome and indeed all over a Europe, recovering fast from the horrors of the thirties and forties.
I returned to America in 1961 to teach at the Servite seminary from which I had been ordained. I was the entire biblical department and taught my way through the complete Bible over a four-year cycle. Such total unspecialization is neither usual nor desirable, but I have never regretted having done it at least once. It was then I first began to learn something about the Bible: day after day, word after word, book after book. My first years of teaching coincided with a very exciting period in Roman Catholicism. The Second Vatican Council began to raise more questions than it would dare to answer.
In 1965 I went for a two-year sabbatical to the Ecole Biblique, the school of archeology run by the French Dominicans just outside the Damascus Gate in East Jerusalem (then Jordan). Most of the time I was doing my own work, but the location made it possible to go everywhere in the Middle East: in short trips to Jordan and Israel, and in longer ones to Greece and Turkey, Iraq and Iran, Lebanon and Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. In those days (though not anymore) I thought that the Lebanon solution might offer a model for Ireland’s tribal problems. On a beautiful late May day in 1967 the United Nations’ officers and officials moved their dependents into Lebanon, across the border from Israel and Jordan. We knew it was time for those of us who could leave to do so. The war came in three days. But by then, I was on my way home to teach with the Servites in Chicago.
In the fall of 1968 I decided to resign from the priesthood for two reasons. I wanted to marry Margaret Dagenais, who was then in the process of founding the Fine Arts Department at Loyola University in Chicago. And I wanted to be free from the irritation of thinking critically, as I had been trained, but being in constant trouble for doing so. I wanted to move from seminary to university teaching. In the late summer of 1969 I married Margaret and began teaching at DePaul University that fall. Not every Catholic university was willing to accept ex-priests into their departments of theology in 1969. It is a tribute to DePaul’s integrity that it was willing to judge me in terms of academic competency rather than dogmatic orthodoxy. There I remain, out of gratitude and loyalty, but more out of profound respect for that integrity.
In the early seventies Margaret and I discovered a bay, a valley, and a hillside high above the Mediterranean near Cala Llonga on Ibiza in the Balearic Islands of Spain. We bought some land, designed a villa, had it built, and spent the summers of the late seventies and earliest eighties there. (A year in Provence, nothing. Try a decade on Ibiza.) Margaret died from a heart attack in 1983. It was the first Saturday in June, the day we were to have left for Ibiza. I had what few of us get, three months with nothing to do but mourn, nowhere to hide from it and nothing to distract from it. Slowly, that first summer without her, I proofed In Fragments: The Aphorisms of Jesus, which was perfect: it required no thought but great concentration. And slowly, that same summer, I folded all Margaret’s clothes, dismantled her studio, gathered her books and realized, in watching myself do it, that I was getting the luxury of a three-month burial to replace the three-day one that had happened too soon, too fast. At the end of the summer I put our villa on Ibiza up for sale and went wind-surfing with my oldest nephew off Wexford in the Irish Sea. Raw terror is excellent therapy.
I knew that late May, early June, and no Ibiza would make the summer of 1984 an intense reminder of 1983. And I still had not done any work that required high originality or sustained creativity. Justus George Lawler had just become editorial director of Winston/Seabury and, in late May, asked me if I had anything for his first catalogue that Fall. He gave me overnight to think about it and on the telephone next morning I proposed Four Other Gospels: Ghosts that Haunt the Corridors of Canon. George disliked the subtitle so I slipped it into the Prologue, kept its rhythm, but replaced it with Shadows on the Contours of Canon. All necessary materials were on hand from In Fragments and the book was written in June and July of 1984. It was transmitted electronically from DePaul’s microcomputer to Polebridge Press and the page proofs were back by August when I returned after some more raw terror on the Irish Sea. We got the book out for the professional annual meeting, just six months from start to finish. But what it meant for me, above all, was that I was back and I was all right. Four Other Gospels will always be very special to me, and not just because its last chapter grew into The Cross that Spoke: The Origins of the Passion and Resurrection Narratives. The published subtitle, The Origins of the Passion Narratives is the work of some editorial type who found my version too long.
In August of 1986 I married Sarah Sexton, a school social worker. She has two children from an earlier marriage, but when Michelle and Frank entered my life they were already out of their teens. This is a procedure which I recommend highly. Although it lacks a little in biological immediacy, it is much easier, I am told, on the nerves. It is to Sarah, Frank, and Michelle that The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant is dedicated.
With that book, life got a little hectic. For six months it was in the top ten of religious bestsellers according to Publishers Weekly. After I made a promotional tour in Boston, New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles before Easter, it became No. 1 in June, 1992. Separate British and Australian editions as well as Portuguese, Spanish, German, and Italian (where’s France?) are out or in process. Rumors of a Gaelic translation, however, are unfounded. There is out there, for twentieth-century Christianity, those I call the Jesus-likers—a phenomenon akin to that of the God-fearers for first-century Judaism.
Between myself and the publisher, HarperSanFrancisco, The Historical Jesus is known as “Big Jesus.” This is to distinguish it from a reorganized, popularized, and updated version due out in November 1993 and entitled, publicly, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, but privately, “Baby Jesus.” Beyond that, the next major project is obvious. Its working title is After the Crucifixion: The Search for Earliest Christianity. By “earliest” I mean before Paul, apart from Paul, and if Paul had never existed. If we can get behind the gospels to the historical Jesus, can we get behind the Acts of the Apostles to earliest Christianity?
I have been asked, quite often, what drives this life-time of research. I have been told, quite often, that I must be anti-dogmatic, anti-ecclesiastical, or anti-fundamentalist, that, having left the priesthood and monasticism, I must be seeking excuse at best or revenge at worst. Maybe. But dogmatism or fundamentalism, which have certainly scarred others terribly, have not really hurt me early enough or badly enough to warrant hidden attack. And, while I was a priest and a religious, I was quite happy. When I wasn’t, I left. I sense in myself no hidden agenda of either excuse or revenge. Here, however, is what I do see.
The last chapters of the gospels and the first chapters of Acts taken literally, factually, and historically trivialize Christianity and brutalize Judaism. That acceptation has created in Christianity a lethal deceit that sours its soul, hardens its heart, and savages its spirit. Although the basis of all religion and, indeed, of all human life is mythological, based on acts of fundamental faith incapable of proof or disproof, Christianity often asserts that its faith is based on fact not interpretation, history not myth, actual event not supreme fiction. I find that assertion internally corrosive and externally offensive. And because I am myself a Christian, I have a responsibility to do something about it. My reconstruction of the historical Jesus, for example, must be able to show why some people wanted to execute him but others wanted to worship him, why some thought him criminal but others thought him divine. But criminal or divine are not fact but interpretation, one by imperial Rome and the other by early Christianity. To say, therefore, that Jesus is divine means that some group sees in the historical Jesus the manifestation of God. That historical Jesus must be open to each and every century’s public proofs and disproofs, and it is precisely each century’s reconstructed historical Jesus that becomes an ever renewed challenge to Christian faith.
I never presume that we find the historical Jesus once and for all. I never separate the historical Jesus from the Christ of faith. Jesus Christ is the combination of a fact (Jesus) and an interpretation (Christ). They should neither be separated nor confused, and each must be found anew in every generation, for their structural dialectic is the heart of Christianity.
Fonte: The Fourth R – Volume 6-5, September-October 1993
A dica anterior contempla um recurso disponível para o Internet Explorer.
Mas e o Firefox?
Para que não saiam por aí falando que sou tão rwindows, vou me aventurar a falar de algo que não é da minha área, porém a instalação da última versão do Mozilla Firefox, reforçada por alguns complementos, dá muito mais segurança para quem navega nas turvas águas da Internet. Mesmo com o Windows! Veja.
Instale a última versão do Mozilla Firefox, no momento, a 220.127.116.11. Em seguida, vá até “Ferramentas”, escolha “Complementos” e “Extensões”. Clique em Mais extensões e escolha as de sua preferência. Só que para navegar com mais segurança, recomendo as seguintes:
. Adblock: filtra ads de páginas da web visitadas. Mas há várias extensões para bloquear propaganda. Escolha a sua. Geralmente trazem “block” em seu nome.
. CallingID Link Advisor: ao colocar o mouse sobre um link, este recurso verifica se o link é seguro, dando nome, endereço e classificando o site por cores –> verde: seguro; amarelo: baixo risco; vermelho: alto risco. Este recurso está disponível também para os navegadores Internet Explorer e AOL, para os clientes de e-mail Outlook, Outlook Express, Thunderbird, Eudora e Incredimail, e para os comunicadores ICQ, Google Talk e Yahoo! Messenger. Mas não se espante: a maioria dos sites brasileiros – e de outros países – estão em amarelo (baixo risco, freqüentemente quando não há risco algum), pois o “proprietário” do site (owner) não é conhecido por quem criou a extensão. A classificação parece ser precisa somente para sites norte-americanos.
. Google Toolbar for Firefox: a conhecida barra de ferramentas do Google, da qual falei no post anterior.
. HostIP.info Geolocation Plugin: ao colocar o mouse sobre o link podem ser vistos a URL, o Host, o IP e a localização geográfica do site .
. Infocon Monitor: mostra o nível atual do SANS Internet Storm Center, uma sofisticada organização de análise de invasões virtuais que monitora ataques provenientes de qualquer parte do mundo.
. NoScript: proteção extra contra scripts maliciosos eventualmente existentes em páginas acessadas.
. ShowIP: mostra o IP da página atual.
Há mais… muito mais! Como: Adblock Plus; Adblock Filterset.G Updater; McAfee SiteAdvisor… Procure as extensões citadas acima na caixa de busca da página ou vá à procura de outras que possam lhe interessar, vasculhando por categoria.