Uma leitura pós-colonial de Israel

PERDUE, L. G.; CARTER, W. Israel and Empire: A Postcolonial History of Israel and Early Judaism. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2015, 344 p. – ISBN 9780567243287. 

Diz a editora:
Israel and Empire introduces students to the history, literature, and theology of the Hebrew Bible and texts of early Judaism, enabling them to read these texts through the lens of postcolonial interpretation. This approach should allow students to recognize not only how cultural and socio-political forces shaped ancient Israel and the worldviews of the early Jews but also the impact of imperialism on modern readings of the Bible.

Perdue and Carter cover a broad sweep of history, from 1300 BCE to 72 CE, including the late Bronze age, Egyptian imperialism, Israel’s entrance into Canaan, the Davidic-Solomonic Empire, the Assyrian Empire, the Babylonian Empire, the Persian Empire, the Greek Empire, the Maccabean Empire, and Roman rule. Additionally the authors show how earlier examples of imperialism in the Ancient Near East provide a window through which to see the forces and effects of imperialism in modern history.

1. Beginnings

2. The Crisis of the Late Bronze Age and the Spawning of New Empires and Kingdoms (1250-1150 B.C.E.).

3. Egyptian Imperialism: The Origins of Ancient Israel in Egypt (LBA)

4. Liberated Colonies and the Formation of a Tribal Nation: Israel’s Entrance into Canaan and the Period of the Judges (Iron I)

5. Imperialism in Early Israel: The Davidic-Solomonic Empire (1000-922 B. C. E.)

6. Imperialism: The Establishment of the Northern Empire (922-722 B. C. E.)

7. Imperialism: The Assyrian Empire (745-612 B. C. E.)

8. Imperialism: The Babylonian Empire (612 – 539 B. C. E.)

9. Imperialism: The Persian Empire (539-332 B. C. E.)

10. Imperialism: The Greek Empire (332-164 B. C. E.)

11. Postcolonialism: the Maccabean Empire (164-63 B. C. E.)

12. Neo-Imperialism: The Roman Rule of Judea in the Late Republic (65 B. C. E.) and the Subsequent Empire (30 B. C. E.-72 C. E.)

Em um artigo, publicado na revista Estudos de Religião, vol. 28, n. 1 (2014), da UMESP, sob o título Hermenêutica bíblica: refazendo caminhos, José Ademar Kaefer diz sobre a hermenêutica pós-colonial:

Hermenêutica pós-colonial tomou forças no final do século XX, a partir, principalmente, dos estudos pós-coloniais nas antigas colônias que haviam passado por um recente movimento de independência, mas não se restringe a isso. É um movimento anticolonial e tem como foco a crítica à razão pós-colonial. Nenhum colonialismo se constrói fora de si. O colonizador constrói a si mesmo quando coloniza. Constrói a si e exclui o colonizado. Por isso é colonialismo. Quando sai da colônia, o colonizador não a deixa de fato, pois permanece aí sua filosofia, teologia, história, modo de organizar a sociedade etc. Ele desconhece, fecha-se e destrói outro modo de sociedade. Portanto, o colonizado não se tornou independente de fato. Ele continua dependente do modo de pensar do colonizador: “Pode um subalterno falar”? Portanto, é preciso descolonizar o modo de pensar, partindo da geopolítica, da corpopolítica, da interculturalidade e da alteridade, um pensar entre lugares. Descolonizar a partir de grupos culturais de lugares e do diálogo entre a diversidade. A hermenêutica bíblica pós-colonial tem raízes na teologia da libertação, mas se diferencia desta por sua internacionalidade. Enquanto que na teologia da libertação o campo de ação é predominantemente a partir dos empobrecidos da América Latina e Caribe, na teoria pós-colonial são os excluídos do mundo a falar da periferia do mundo. 

Leia Mais:
A invenção de povos: uma reflexão necessária

Contexto histórico e cultural do Novo Testamento

SMITH, D. L. Into the World of the New Testament: Greco-Roman and Jewish Texts and Contexts. London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2015, 256 p. – ISBN 9780567657022. Para Kindle, aqui.

Publicação em paperback prevista para março de 2015 e para Kindle no final de janeiro de 2015.

Resenha feita por Jim West em seu blog. Ele diz: I recommend it to those teaching New Testament introduction and to students taking New Testament introduction (even if it isn’t a required text).  And I commend it to the attention of those who are taking no courses, attending no school, seeking no grade; to those who simply want to know more about the New Testament itself. 

O livro de Daniel Lynwood Smith parece interessante especialmente para quem está começando a estudar o Novo Testamento, como os nossos alunos de graduação em Teologia.

Diz a editora:
Daniel Lynwood Smith orients readers of the New Testament to its historical and cultural settings, introducing the cast of characters, and illuminating key concepts by exploring their use in ancient texts. Smith includes quotations from many primary sources including Josephus, Tacitus, the Qumran Community, Pliny the Younger, and other carefully chosen texts from lesser-known ancient sources. These texts are all carefully woven together with commentary, to provide a narrative framework for the material and guide students through the text. A glossary of complex terms is provided, to make everything as clear as possible for the newcomer to New Testament studies.

This integrative approach both introduces the key sources to the reader and elaborates on their significance for understanding the New Testament. In an admirably concise format Smith is able to cover the military-political history of Israel-Palestine, the messianic movements of Second Temple Judaism, the ancient practice of crucifixion and the development of the Christian canon. Through immersion in these ancient Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman texts and contexts, contemporary readers take a step closer to experiencing the New Testament with first-century eyes and ears.

Chapter 1: What is the New Testament?

Part 1: The Setting
Chapter 2: The Kingdom of… God?
Chapter 3: When in Rome

Part 2: The Cast of Characters
Chapter 4: John the Baptist and other Movers and Shakers
Chapter 5: A Virgin, a King, a High Priest, a Governor, and a Rabbi
Chapter 6: Joshua the Carpenter’s Son…or the Christ, the Son of God?
Chapter 7: Learners
Chapter 8: The Jews
Chapter 9: “I am a Jew”

Part 3: Reading Words
Chapter 10: The Crux of the Matter
Chapter 11: Faith(fulness)
Chapter 12: Apocalypse Then
Post-Script: Loose Canons

Glossary: The Meaning of Words

Crítica marxista da Bíblia Hebraica

BOER, R. Marxist Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2. ed.  London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2014, 328 p. – ISBN 9780567228413. Para Kindle, aqui.

O livro foi revisado e publicado, em segunda edição, em 18.12.2014. A primeira edição é de 2003.

Veja informações sobre o autor, Roland Boer, em sua página.

Diz a editora:
The only large-scale critical introduction to Western Marxism for biblical criticism. Roland Boer introduces the core concepts of major figures in the tradition, specifically Althusser, Gramsci, Deleuze and Guattari, Eagleton, Lefebvre, Lukács, Adorno, Bloch, Negri, Jameson, and Benjamin. Throughout, Boer shows how Marxist criticism is relevant to biblical criticism, in terms of approaches to the Bible and in the use of those approaches in the interpretation of specific texts.

In this second edition, Boer has added chapters on Deleuze and Guattari, and Negri. Each chapter has been carefully revised to make the book more useful on courses, while maintaining challenges and insights for postgraduate students and scholars. Theoretical material has been updated and sharpened in light of subsequent research and a revised conclusion considers the economies of the ancient world in relation to biblical societies.

Introduction: Touchstones for Marxist Criticism
1. Louis Althusser: The Difficult Birth of Israel in Genesis
2. Antonio Gramsci: The Emergence of the ‘Prince’ in Exodus
3. Deleuze and Guattari: Scapegoats and Resistance
4. Terry Eagleton: The Class Struggles of Ruth
5. Henri Lefebvre (and David Harvey): The Production of Space in 1 Samuel
6. Georg Lukács: The Contradictory World of Kings
7. Theodor Adorno: The Logic of Divine Justice in Isaiah
8. Ernst Bloch: Anti-Yahwism in Ezekiel
9. Antonio Negri: Job: Bending Transcendence to Immanence
10. Fredric Jameson: The Contradictions of Form in the Psalms
11. Walter Benjamin: The Impossible Apocalyptic of Daniel
Conclusion: Marxism and the Sacred Economy